The text of the Franco-German Treaty of Aix La Chapelle signed on January 22, 2019. In French or German

(B2) We reproduce the text verbatim of the treaty which will be signed by French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor Angela Merkel on January 22 in Aachen

(credit: Aachen)

For our first analysis on the defense – diplomacy part (read the article published on January 10): Politics, diplomacy, defence, the first elements of the Franco-German Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

To download the PDF version of the Treaty – in French / in German

Treaty between the French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany on Franco-German cooperation and integration

The French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany,

Recognizing the historic success of reconciliation between the French and German peoples, to which the Treaty of 22 January 1963 between the French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany on Franco-German cooperation made an exceptional contribution and from which a network without precedent of bilateral relations between their civil societies and their public authorities at all levels,

Convinced that the time has come to raise their bilateral relations to a higher level and to prepare for the challenges facing the two States and Europe in the XNUMXst century, and wishing to converge their economies and their social models, foster diversity culture and bring their societies and citizens closer together,

Convinced that the close friendship between France and Germany has been decisive and remains an indispensable element of a united, efficient, sovereign and strong European Union,

Committed to deepening their cooperation in European policy in order to promote the unity, efficiency and cohesion of Europe, while keeping this cooperation open to all Member States of the European Union,

Attached to the founding principles, rights, freedoms and values ​​of the European Union, which defend the rule of law throughout the European Union and promote it outside,

Committed to working towards upward social and economic convergence within the European Union, to strengthening mutual solidarity and to promoting the constant improvement of living and working conditions in accordance with the principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights, including by paying particular attention to the empowerment of women and gender equality,

Reaffirming the European Union's commitment to an open, fair and rules-based global market, access to which is based on reciprocity and non-discrimination and which is governed by high environmental and social standards,

Mindful of their rights and obligations under the Charter of the United Nations,

Firmly committed to a rules-based international order and multilateralism, of which the United Nations is the central element,

Convinced that prosperity and security can only be achieved through urgent action to protect the climate and preserve biodiversity and ecosystems,

Acting in accordance with their respective national constitutional and legal rules and within the legal framework of the European Union,

Recognizing the fundamental role of decentralized cooperation between municipalities, counties, regions, Länder, the Senate and the Bundesrat, as well as that of cooperation between the Plenipotentiary of the Federal Republic of Germany for Cultural Affairs within the framework of the Treaty on Franco-German cooperation and the competent French ministers,

Recognizing the essential role of cooperation between the National Assembly and the Deutscher Bundestag, in particular within the framework of their interparliamentary agreement of 22 January 2019, which constitutes an important dimension of the close ties between the two countries, Have agreed as follows :

CHAPTER 1. European affairs

Article 1er

The two states are deepening their cooperation in European politics. They act in favor of an effective and strong common foreign and security policy, and strengthen and deepen the Economic and Monetary Union. They strive to complete the completion of the Single Market and work to build a competitive Union, based on a strong industrial base, which serves as a basis for prosperity, promoting economic, fiscal and social convergence as well as sustainability in all its dimensions.

Article 2

The two States consult regularly at all levels before major European events, seeking to establish common positions and agree on coordinated speeches by their ministers. They coordinate on the transposition of European law into their national law.

CHAPTER 2. Peace, security and development

Article 3

The two states are deepening their cooperation in foreign policy, defence, external and internal security and development while striving to strengthen Europe's capacity for autonomous action. They consult each other in order to define common positions on any major decision affecting their common interests and to act jointly in all cases where this is possible.

Article 4

(1) As a result of the commitments binding them under Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty of April 4, 1949 and Article 42, paragraph 7, of the Treaty on European Union of February 7, 1992, amended by the Treaty of Lisbon of 13 December 2007 amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, the two States, convinced of the inseparable nature of their security interests, are increasingly converging their objectives and policies security and defence, thereby strengthening the collective security systems of which they are part. They lend each other aid and assistance by all means at their disposal, including armed force, in the event of armed aggression against their territories. The territorial scope of the second sentence of this paragraph corresponds to that of Article 42(7) of the Treaty on European Union.

(2) The two States shall act jointly whenever possible, in accordance with their respective national rules, with a view to maintaining peace and security. They continue to develop Europe's effectiveness, coherence and credibility in the military field. In doing so, they commit to strengthening Europe's capacity for action and to investing jointly to fill its capability gaps, thus strengthening the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance.

(3) The two States undertake to further strengthen cooperation between their armed forces with a view to establishing a common culture and carrying out joint deployments. They intensify the development of common defense programs and their extension to partners. In doing so, they intend to promote competitiveness and the consolidation of the European defense industrial and technological base. They are in favor of the closest possible cooperation between their defense industries, based on their mutual trust. The two states will develop a common arms export approach with regard to joint projects.

(4) The two States set up the Franco-German Defense and Security Council as the political body for steering these reciprocal commitments. This Board will meet at the highest level at regular intervals.

Article 5

The two states are expanding cooperation between their ministries of foreign affairs, including their diplomatic and consular missions. They will exchange high-ranking personnel. They will establish exchanges within their permanent representations to the United Nations in New York, in particular between their Security Council teams, their permanent representations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and their permanent representations to the European Union, as well as between the bodies of the two States responsible for coordinating European action.

Article 6

In the field of internal security, the governments of the two States are further strengthening their bilateral cooperation in the fight against terrorism and organized crime, as well as their cooperation in the judicial field and in the field of intelligence and police. They implement common training and deployment measures and create a common unit for stabilization operations in third countries.

Article 7

The two States undertake to establish an increasingly close partnership between Europe and Africa by strengthening their cooperation in the areas of private sector development, regional integration, education and vocational training, gender equality and women's empowerment, with the aim of improving socio-economic prospects, sustainability, good governance as well as conflict prevention, crisis resolution, particularly in the context of peacekeeping, and the management of post-conflict situations. The two States establish an annual dialogue at the political level on international development policy in order to intensify the coordination of the planning and implementation of their policies.

Article 8

(1) Within the framework of the Charter of the United Nations, the two States will cooperate closely in all organs of the United Nations. They will closely coordinate their positions, within the framework of a broader effort of consultation between the Member States of the European Union sitting on the United Nations Security Council and in compliance with the positions and interests of the European Union. They will act together to promote at the United Nations the positions and commitments of the European Union in the face of global challenges and threats. They will do their utmost to achieve a unified position of the European Union within the appropriate bodies of the United Nations.

(2) The two States undertake to continue their efforts to bring to a conclusion intergovernmental negotiations concerning the reform of the Security Council of the United Nations. The admission of the Federal Republic of Germany as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council is a priority for Franco-German diplomacy.

CHAPTER 3. Culture, teaching, research and mobility

Article 9

Both states recognize the decisive role played by culture and the media in strengthening Franco-German friendship. Accordingly, they are resolved to create for their peoples a shared space of freedom and opportunity, as well as a common cultural and media space. They develop mobility and exchange programs between their countries, in particular for young people within the framework of the Franco-German Youth Office, and define quantified objectives in these areas. In order to promote ever closer links in all areas of cultural expression, in particular through integrated cultural institutes, they are setting up specific programs and a digital platform aimed in particular at young people.

Article 10

The two States bring their education systems closer together through the development of mutual learning of the other's language, the adoption, in accordance with their constitutional organization, of strategies aimed at increasing the number of pupils studying the language of the partner, to an action in favor of the mutual recognition of diplomas and the establishment of Franco-German tools of excellence for research, training and vocational education, as well as integrated Franco-German dual programs under the 'Higher Education.

Article 11

The two states promote the networking of their education and research systems as well as their funding structures. They pursue the development of the Franco-German University and encourage French and German universities to participate in networks of European universities.

Article 12

The two States are establishing a Common Citizens' Fund intended to encourage and support citizens' initiatives and town twinning with the aim of bringing their two peoples even closer together.

CHAPTER 4. Regional and cross-border cooperation

Article 13

(1) The two States recognize the importance of cross-border cooperation between the French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany to strengthen the links between citizens and businesses on both sides of the border, in particular the essential role local authorities and other local actors in this respect. They intend to facilitate the elimination of obstacles in the border territories in order to implement cross-border projects and to facilitate the daily life of the inhabitants of these territories.

(2) To this end, in compliance with the respective constitutional rules of the two States and within the limits of European Union law, the two States shall endow the local authorities of the border territories and the cross-border entities such as the Eurodistricts with appropriate powers, dedicated resources and accelerated procedures to overcome obstacles to carrying out cross-border projects, particularly in the economic, social, environmental, health, energy and transport fields. If no other means enable them to overcome these obstacles, appropriate legal and administrative provisions, in particular derogations, may also be granted. In this case, it is up to the two States to adopt the appropriate legislation.

(3) Both States remain committed to maintaining high standards in the areas of labor law, social welfare, health and safety, and environmental protection.

Article 14

The two States set up a cross-border cooperation committee comprising stakeholders such as the State and local authorities, parliaments and cross-border entities such as the Euro-districts and, if necessary, the Euroregions concerned. This committee is responsible for coordinating all aspects of cross-border territorial observation between the French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany, defining a common strategy for choosing priority projects, monitoring the difficulties encountered in the border territories and to make proposals with a view to remedying them, as well as to analyze the impact of the new legislation on the border territories.

Article 15

Both states are committed to the goal of bilingualism in border territories and provide support to border communities to develop and implement appropriate strategies.

Article 16

The two states will facilitate cross-border mobility by improving the interconnection of digital and physical networks between them, including rail and road links. They will act in close collaboration in the field of innovative, sustainable mobility accessible to all in order to develop approaches or standards common to both States.

CHAPTER 5. Sustainable development, climate environment and economic affairs

Article 17

The two States encourage decentralized cooperation between communities in non-border territories. They undertake to support the initiatives launched by these communities which are implemented in these territories.

Article 18

The two States are working to strengthen the process of implementing multilateral instruments relating to sustainable development, global health and environmental and climate protection, in particular the Paris Agreement of December 12, 2015 and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. To this end, they work closely together to formulate common approaches and policies, in particular by setting up mechanisms for the transformation of their economies and by promoting ambitious actions to combat climate change. They guarantee the integration of climate protection into all policies, in particular through regular cross-cutting exchanges between governments in key sectors.

Article 19

The two States will advance the energy transition in all appropriate sectors and, to this end, develop their cooperation and strengthen the institutional framework for the financing, development and implementation of joint projects, particularly in the areas of infrastructure, renewable energies and energy efficiency.

Article 20

(1) The two States are deepening the integration of their economies in order to establish a Franco-German economic zone with common rules. The Franco-German Economic and Financial Council promotes the bilateral harmonization of their legislation, particularly in the field of business law, and regularly coordinates economic policies between the French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany in order to promote convergence. between the two States and to improve the competitiveness of their economies.

(2) The two States set up a “Franco-German Council of Economic Experts” composed of ten independent experts in order to submit recommendations to the two governments on their economic action.

Article 21

The two States are stepping up their cooperation in the field of research and digital transformation, particularly in terms of artificial intelligence and breakthrough innovations. They will promote guidelines on the ethics of new technologies on an international scale. In order to promote innovation, they set up Franco-German initiatives which are open to cooperation at European level. The two states will establish a coordination process and joint funding to support joint research and innovation programs.

Article 22

Stakeholders and interested actors from both states are brought together in a Franco-German Future Forum to work on the transformation processes of their societies.


CHAPTER 6. Organization

Article 23

Meetings between the governments of the two States take place at least once a year, alternately in the French Republic and in the Federal Republic of Germany. After the entry into force of this Treaty, the Franco-German Council of Ministers shall adopt a multiannual program of Franco-German cooperation projects. The secretaries general for Franco-German cooperation responsible for preparing these meetings monitor the implementation of this program and report to the Council of Ministers.

Article 24

A member of the government of one of the two States takes part, at least once per quarter and alternately, in the Council of Ministers of the other State.

Article 25

The councils, structures and instruments of Franco-German cooperation are subject to periodic review and are, if necessary, adapted without delay to the objectives set by mutual agreement. The first of these reviews should take place within six months of the entry into force of this Treaty and propose the necessary adaptations. The secretaries general for Franco-German cooperation regularly assess the progress made. They inform the parliaments and the Franco-German Council of Ministers of the general progress of Franco-German cooperation.

Article 26

Representatives of regions and Länder, as well as of the cross-border cooperation committee, may be invited to participate in the Franco-German Council of Ministers.


CHAPTER 7. Final provisions

Article 27

This Treaty supplements the Treaty of 22 January 1963 between the French Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany on Franco-German cooperation within the meaning of paragraph 4 of the Final Provisions of this Treaty.

Article 28

The two States shall inform each other, through diplomatic channels, of the completion of the national procedures required for the entry into force of this Treaty. This Treaty shall enter into force on the date of receipt of the last notification.

(Source: The gallery)

Nicolas Gros Verheyde

Chief editor of the B2 site. Graduated in European law from the University of Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and listener to the 65th session of the IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Défense Nationale. Journalist since 1989, founded B2 - Bruxelles2 in 2008. EU/NATO correspondent in Brussels for Sud-Ouest (previously West-France and France-Soir).