Incidents de parcours, précédents historiques (v2)

(B2) Remontons le temps… La nomination de la Commission européenne n’a pas toujours été un parcours sans embûches

La Commission européenne Barroso II détient le record de retard d’entrée en fonction avec près de deux mois de retard sur le délai prévu (crédit : Commission européenne)

1991 : une demi-Commission

En 1991, la Commission Delors n’a pas été prolongée. C’est une nouvelle Commission qui a été nommée. Mais de façon intérimaire : pour une durée limitée de 2 ans. Une prolongation nécessaire… pour se caler sur le calendrier des élections européennes et le nouveau mandat de cinq ans confié à la Commission (et non plus quatre ans). Dans cette Commission, annoncée le 22 décembre 1992, sept commissaires sont nouveaux sur les 17 présents à l’époque (deux commissaires par « grand » Etat, un pour les « petits »).

Commission 1993 : Les Britanniques recalent « Dehaene »

En 1993, la Commission est effectivement prolongée, mais de 15 jours ! Du 6 janvier au 22 janvier exactement. Le temps que la nouvelle Commission soit en place, très exactement. A cause du retard pris pour nommer la Commission. Au Sommet de Corfou, les Britanniques refusent Jean-Luc Dehaene (le Premier ministre Belge); En juillet, sort le nom de Jacques Santer, le Luxembourgeois. Le Parlement européen montre sa mauvaise humeur, et fait trainer les choses. Il n’est pas content de la répartition des portefeuilles. Et se montre réticent à confier certaines responsabilités à quelques commissaires. Le portefeuille de l’égalité est ainsi retiré au commissaire Padraig Flynn car il avait fait des déclarations un peu à l’emporte pièce sur le rôle des femmes. Les trois nouveaux Etats membres n’ont pas encore ratifié le traité. Et le Parlement exige que les nouveaux députés participent au vote (le vote prévu en décembre est reporté en janvier). La Commission est là pour expédier les affaires courantes. Et rien de plus. La présentation de certains textes est renvoyée à plus tard (Jacques Delors l’explique personnellement alors à un certain ministre de la Communication dénommé… Nicolas Sarkozy ! à propos de la directive « télévision sans frontières).

Commission 1999 : un mandat abrégé pour l’équipe Santer

En janvier 1999, le Parlement européen menace la Commission d’une motion de censure. Écartée… mais le couperet est passé près ( 232 voix pour la censure, 293 voix contre, 27 abstentions). En cause, le fonctionnement de la Commission. La commissaire Edith Cresson est violemment mise en cause à la fois pour la gestion des subventions du programme Leonardo pour l’emploi (fictif) d’un consultant (ami) aux résultats peu probants… Elle n’est pas la seule. Le commissaire espagnol Manuel Marin l’est en raison de fraudes dans l’aide humanitaire. Un comité d’experts indépendants est mandaté. Son rapport, remis en mars 1999, est sévère pour l’institution montrant de réels dysfonctionnements. Même si l’enquête prouve qu’il n’y a pas eu d’enrichissement personnel, il y a eu nettement favoritisme. Les deux commissaires refusent cependant de démissionner. C’est le choc des cultures entre une administration latine plus permissive et une administration anglo-saxonne beaucoup moins (Lire aussi : Bruxelles lâche Cresson une deuxième fois). La motion de censure parait cette fois inéluctable. Le président Jacques Santer choisit donc de démissionner ainsi que l’ensemble de son collège. L’ancien Premier ministre Romano Prodi est appelé à la rescousse pour faire l’intérim et préparer la prochaine Commission. Nommé au Conseil européen en mars, il constitue l’exécutif européen en juillet. Celui-ci est adoubé par le Parlement et entame son travail le 18 septembre 1999 pour finir le mandat de la Commission précédente jusqu’au 21 janvier 2000, avant d’entamer un nouveau mandat de 5 ans.

Commission 2004 : l’incident Buttiglione

En 2004, la Commission Prodi – prévue pour terminer le 31 octobre – est obligée de jouer les prolongations, jusqu’au 22 novembre pour des raisons très politiques. Le ‘satané’ Parlement européen, a refusé de confier le portefeuille « Justice intérieur » au conservateur italien Rocco Buttiglione après des déclarations blessantes sur les homosexuels. Deux autres « prétendants » au poste de commissaire ont également raté leur examen de passage. Le président de la Commission, José-Manuel Barroso, s’entête à vouloir garder l’Italien Buttiglione, à bord, l’Italie également. Finalement, au risque de subir une censure pour toute la Commission, il jette l’éponge. Un nouveau commissaire italien arrive.

Commission 2009 : retard dans le processus du traité de Lisbonne et incident Jeleva = trois mois de prolongation

La Commission européenne est prolongée d’une part à cause du retard pris pour l’entrée en vigueur du traité de Lisbonne (qui n’entre en vigueur qu’au 1er décembre 2009 suite aux réticences tchèque et polonaise), soit un mois après la mise en place prévue pour la Commission. Et, d’autre part, par un autre incident de parcours. Cette fois c’est la Bulgare Rumania Jeleva, pressentie pour prendre en charge l’Aide humanitaire et la réponse de crises, qui a fait une audition désastreuse au Parlement européen. Trahissant une certaine méconnaissance des dossiers, des maladresses et une attitude pouvant sembler méprisante, trahie par une affaire où est impliqué son mari, qu’elle ne cherche pas à expliquer, elle ne réussit pas son ‘grand oral’. Jeleva entend démissionner. Mais ses collègues du PPE tentent de la garder, ou au moins de sauver leur honneur, en impliquant un commissaire social-démocrate, le slovaque Maroš Šefčovič. Par ricochet, d’autres commissaires comme le Finlandais libéral Olli Rehn ou le Letton indépendant Algirdas Šemeta, particulièrement ciblés par les socialistes, n’ont eu leur chance qu’au rattrapage.

Le président Barroso ne veut pas voir le précédent de 2009 se renouveler. D’autant que la Commission nouvelle n’a déjà que trop traîné à entrer en fonction. La Bulgarie nomme une nouvelle commissaire, Kristalina Georgieva. Et après une audition, brillante cette fois ( avec un ouf ! de soulagement pour tout le monde), la nouvelle Commission peut entrer en fonction le 9 février 2010, adoubée par le Parlement européen intervenu lors d’un vote tenu le même jour.

(Nicolas Gros-Verheyde)

Lire :

Lire aussi : Le grand oral des commissaires n’est pas une synécure

Mis à jour – janvier 2010

Accord de paix en Bosnie-Herzégovine (Dayton-Paris 21 nov 1995)

General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Paris, 21 November 1995)

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the “Parties”),

Recognizing the need for a comprehensive settlement to bring an end to the tragic conflict in the region,

Desiring to contribute toward that end and to promote an enduring peace and stability,

Affirming their commitment to the Agreed Basic Principles issued on September 8, 1995, the Further Agreed Basic Principles issued on September 26, 1995, and the cease-fire agreements of September 14 and October 5, 1995,

Noting the agreement of August 29, 1995, which authorized the delegation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to sign, on behalf of the Republika Srpska, the parts of the peace plan concerning it, with the obligation to implement the agreement that is reached strictly and consequently,

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

The Parties shall conduct their relations in accordance with the principles set forth in the United Nations Charter, as well as the Helsinki Final Act and other documents of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. In particular, the Parties shall fully respect the sovereign equality of one another, shall settle disputes by peaceful means, and shall refrain from any action, by threat or use of force or otherwise, against the territorial integrity or political independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina or any other State.

Article II

The Parties welcome and endorse the arrangements that have been made concerning the military aspects of the peace settlement and aspects of regional stabilization, as set forth in the Agreements at Annex 1-A and Annex 1-B. The Parties shall fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made in Annex 1-A, and shall comply fully with their commitments as set forth in Annex 1-B.

Article III

The Parties welcome and endorse the arrangements that have been made concerning the boundary demarcation between the two Entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, as set forth in the Agreement at Annex 2. The Parties shall fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made therein.

Article IV

The Parties welcome and endorse the elections program for Bosnia and Herzegovina as set forth in Annex 3. The Parties shall fully respect and promote fulfillment of that program.

Article V

The Parties welcome and endorse the arrangements that have been made concerning the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as set forth in Annex 4. The Parties shall fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made therein.

Article VI

The Parties welcome and endorse the arrangements that have been made concerning the establishment of an arbitration tribunal, a Commission on Human Rights, a Commission on Refugees and Displaced Persons, a Commission to Preserve National Monuments, and Bosnia and Herzegovina Public Corporations, as set forth in the Agreements at Annexes 5-9. The Parties shall fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made therein.

Article VII

Recognizing that the observance of human rights and the protection of refugees and displaced persons are of vital importance in achieving a lasting peace, the Parties agree to and shall comply fully with the provisions concerning human rights set forth in Chapter One of the Agreement at Annex 6, as well as the provisions concerning refugees and displaced persons set forth in Chapter One of the Agreement at Annex 7.

Article VIII

The Parties welcome and endorse the arrangements that have been made concerning the implementation of this peace settlement, including in particular those pertaining to the civilian (non-military) implementation, as set forth in the Agreement at Annex 10, and the international police task force, as set forth in the Agreement at Annex 11. The Parties shall fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made therein.

Article IX

The Parties shall cooperate fully with all entities involved in implementation of this peace settlement, as described in the Annexes to this Agreement, or which are otherwise authorized by the United Nations Security Council, pursuant to the obligation of all Parties to cooperate in the investigation and prosecution of war crimes and other violations of international humanitarian law.

Article X

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina recognize each other as sovereign independent States within their international borders. Further aspects of their mutual recognition will be subject to subsequent discussions.

Article XI

This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature.

DONE at Paris, this [21st] day of [November], 1995, in the Bosnian, Croatian, English and Serbian languages, each text being equally authentic.

For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

For the Republic of Croatia

For the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Witnessed by:

European Union Special Negotiator

For the French Republic

For the Federal Republic of Germany

For the Russian Federation

For the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

For the United States of America

Annex 10: Agreement on Civilian Implementation

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Republika Srpska (the “Parties”) have agreed as follows:

Article I: High Representative

1. The Parties agree that the implementation of the civilian aspects of the peace settlement will entail a wide range of activities including continuation of the humanitarian aid effort for as long as necessary; rehabilitation of infrastructure and economic reconstruction; the establishment of political and constitutional institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina; promotion of respect for human rights and the return of displaced persons and refugees; and the holding of free and fair elections according to the timetable in Annex 3 to the General Framework Agreement. A considerable number of international organizations and agencies will be called upon to assist.

2. In view of the complexities facing them, the Parties request the designation of a High Representative, to be appointed consistent with relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions, to facilitate the Parties’ own efforts and to mobilize and, as appropriate, coordinate the activities of the organizations and agencies involved in the civilian aspects of the peace settlement by carrying out, as entrusted by a U.N. Security Council resolution, the tasks set out below.

Article II: Mandate and Methods of Coordination and Liaison

1. The High Representative shall:

a. Monitor the implementation of the peace settlement.

b. Maintain close contact with the Parties to promote their full compliance with all civilian aspects of the peace settlement and a high level of cooperation between them and the organizations and agencies participating in those aspects.

c. Coordinate the activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina to ensure the efficient implementation of the civilian aspects of the peace settlement. The High Representative shall respect their autonomy within their spheres of operation while as necessary giving general guidance to them about the impact of their activities on the implementation of the peace settlement. The civilian organizations and agencies are requested to assist the High Representative in the execution of his or her responsibilities by providing all information relevant to their operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

d. Facilitate, as the High Representative judges necessary, the resolution of any difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation.

e. Participate in meetings of donor organizations, particularly on issues of rehabilitation and reconstruction.

f. Report periodically on progress in implementation of the peace agreement concerning the tasks set forth in this Agreement to the United Nations, European Union, United States, Russian Federation, and other interested governments, parties, and organizations.

g. Provide guidance to, and receive reports from, the Commissioner of the International Police Task Force established in Annex 11 to the General Framework Agreement.

2. In pursuit of his or her mandate, the High Representative shall convene and chair a commission (the “Joint Civilian Commission”) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It will comprise senior political representatives of the Parties, the IFOR Commander or his representative, and representatives of those civilian organizations and agencies the High Representative deems necessary.

3. The High Representative shall, as necessary, establish subordinate Joint Civilian Commissions at local levels in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

4. A Joint Consultative Committee will meet from time to time or as agreed between the High Representative and the IFOR Commander.

5. The High Representative or his designated representative shall remain in close contact with the IFOR Commander or his designated representatives and establish appropriate liaison arrangements with the IFOR Commander to facilitate the discharge of their respective responsibilities.

6. The High Representative shall exchange information and maintain liaison on a regular basis with IFOR, as agreed with the IFOR Commander, and through the commissions described in this Article.

7. The High Representative shall attend or be represented at meetings of the Joint Military Commission and offer advice particularly on matters of a political-military nature. Representatives of the High Representative will also attend subordinate commissions of the Joint Military Commission as set out in Article VIII(8) of Annex 1-A to the General Framework Agreement.

8. The High Representative may also establish other civilian commissions within or outside Bosnia and Herzegovina to facilitate the execution of his or her mandate.

9. The High Representative shall have no authority over the IFOR and shall not in any way interfere in the conduct of military operations or the IFOR chain of command.

Article III: Staffing

1. The High Representative shall appoint staff, as he or she deems necessary, to provide assistance in carrying out the tasks herein.

2. The Parties shall facilitate the operations of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including by the provision of appropriate assistance as requested with regard to transportation, subsistence, accommodations, communications, and other facilities at rates equivalent to those provided for the IFOR under applicable agreements.

3. The High Representative shall enjoy, under the laws of Bosnia and Herzegovina, such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of his or her functions, including the capacity to contract and to acquire and dispose of real and personal property.

4. Privileges and immunities shall be accorded as follows:

a. The Parties shall accord the office of the High Representative and its premises, archives, and other property the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by a diplomatic mission and its premises, archives, and other property under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

b. The Parties shall accord the High Representative and professional members of his or her staff and their families the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by diplomatic agents and their families under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

c. The Parties shall accord other members of the High Representative staff and their families the same privileges and immunities as are enjoyed by members of the administrative and technical staff and their families under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

Article IV: Cooperation

The Parties shall fully cooperate with the High Representative and his or her staff, as well as with the international organizations and agencies as provided for in Article IX of the General Framework Agreement.

Article V: Final Authority to Interpret

The High Representative is the final authority in theater regarding interpretation of this Agreement on the civilian implementation of the peace settlement.

Article VI: Entry into Force

This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature.

For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

For the Republic of Croatia

For the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

For the Federation of Bosnia

Annex 11: Agreement on International Police Force

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Republika Srpska (the “Parties”) have agreed as follows:

Article I: Civilian Law Enforcement

1. As provided in Article III(2)(c) of the Constitution agreed as Annex 4 to the General Framework Agreement, the Parties shall provide a safe and secure environment for all persons in their respective jurisdictions, by maintaining civilian law enforcement agencies operating in accordance with internationally recognized standards and with respect for internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, and by taking such other measures as appropriate.

2. To assist them in meeting their obligations, the Parties request that the United Nations establish by a decision of the Security Council, as a UNCIVPOL operation, a U.N. International Police Task Force (IPTF) to carry out, throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, the program of assistance the elements of which are described in Article III below.

Article II: Establishment of the IPTF

1. The IPTF shall be autonomous with regard to the execution of its functions under this Agreement. Its activities will be coordinated through the High Representative described in Annex 10 to the General Framework Agreement.

2. The IPTF will be headed by a Commissioner, who will be appointed by the Secretary General of the United Nations in consultation with the Security Council. It shall consist of persons of high moral standing who have experience in law enforcement. The IPTF Commissioner may request and accept personnel, resources, and assistance from states and international and non-governmental organizations.

3. The IPTF Commissioner shall receive guidance from the High Representative.

4. The IPTF Commissioner shall periodically report on matters within his or her responsibility to the High Representative, the Secretary General of the United Nations, and shall provide information to the IFOR Commander and, as he or she deems appropriate, other institutions and agencies.

5. The IPTF shall at all times act in accordance with internationally recognized standards and with respect for internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, and shall respect, consistent with the IPTF’s responsibilities, the laws and customs of the host country.

6. The Parties shall accord the IPTF Commissioner, IPTF personnel, and their families the privileges and immunities described in Sections 18 and 19 of the 1946 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. In particular, they shall enjoy inviolability, shall not be subject to any form of arrest or detention, and shall have absolute immunity from criminal jurisdiction. IPTF personnel shall remain subject to penalties and sanctions under applicable laws and regulations of the United Nations and other states.

7. The IPTF and its premises, archives, and other property shall be accorded the same privileges and immunities, including inviolability, as are described in Articles II and III of the 1946 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

8. In order to promote the coordination by the High Representative of IPTF activities with those of other civilian organizations and agencies and of the (IFOR), the IPTF Commissioner or his or her representatives may attend meetings of the Joint Civilian Commission established in Annex 10 to the General Framework Agreement and of the Joint Military Commission established in Annex 1, as well as meetings of their subordinate commissions. The IPTF Commissioner may request that meetings of appropriate commissions be convened to discuss issues within his or her area of responsibility.

Article III: IPTF Assistance Program

1. IPTF assistance includes the following elements, to be provided in a program designed and implemented by the IPTF Commissioner in accordance with the Security Council decision described in Article I(2):

a. monitoring, observing, and inspecting law enforcement activities and facilities, including associated judicial organizations, structures, and proceedings;

b. advising law enforcement personnel and forces;

c. training law enforcement personnel;

d. facilitating, within the IPTF’s mission of assistance, the Parties’ law enforcement activities;

e. assessing threats to public order and advising on the capability of law enforcement agencies to deal with such threats.

f. advising governmental authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the organization of effective civilian law enforcement agencies; and

g. assisting by accompanying the Parties’ law enforcement personnel as they carry out their responsibilities, as the IPTF deems appropriate.

2. In addition to the elements of the assistance program set forth in paragraph 1, the IPTF will consider, consistent with its responsibilities and resources, requests from the Parties or law enforcement agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina for assistance described in paragraph 1.

3. The Parties confirm their particular responsibility to ensure the existence of social conditions for free and fair elections, including the protection of international personnel in Bosnia and Herzegovina in connection with the elections provided for in Annex 3 to the General Framework Agreement. They request the IPTF to give priority to assisting the Parties in carrying out this responsibility.

Article IV: Specific Responsibilities of the Parties

1. The Parties shall cooperate fully with the IPTF and shall so instruct all their law enforcement agencies.

2. Within 30 days after this Agreement enters into force, the Parties shall provide the IPTF Commissioner or his or her designee with information on their law enforcement agencies, including their size, location, and force structure. Upon request of the IPTF Commissioner, they shall provide additional information, including any training, operational, or employment and service records of law enforcement agencies and personnel.

3. The Parties shall not impede the movement of IPTF personnel or in any way hinder, obstruct, or delay them in the performance of their responsibilities. They shall allow IPTF personnel immediate and complete access to any site, person, activity, proceeding, record, or other item or event in Bosnia and Herzegovina as requested by the IPTF in carrying out its responsibilities under this Agreement. This shall include the right to monitor, observe, and inspect any site or facility at which it believes that police, law enforcement, detention, or judicial activities are taking place.

4. Upon request by the IPTF, the Parties shall make available for training qualified personnel, who are expected to take up law enforcement duties immediately following such training.

5. The Parties shall facilitate the operations of the IPTF in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including by the provision of appropriate assistance as requested with regard to transportation, subsistence, accommodations, communications, and other facilities at rates equivalent to those provided for the IFOR under applicable agreements.

Article V: Failure to Cooperate

1. Any obstruction of or interference with IPTF activities, failure or refusal to comply with an IPTF request, or other failure to meet the Parties’ responsibilities or other obligations in this Agreement, shall constitute a failure to cooperate with the IPTF.

2. The IPTF Commissioner will notify the High Representative and inform the IFOR Commander of failures to cooperate with the IPTF. The IPTF Commissioner may request that the High Representative take appropriate steps upon receiving such notifications, including calling such failures to the attention of the Parties, convening the Joint Civilian Commission, and consulting with the United Nations, relevant states, and international organizations on further responses.

Article VI: Human Rights

1. When IPTF personnel learn of credible information concerning violations of internationally recognized human rights or fundamental freedoms or of the role of law enforcement officials or forces in such violations, they shall provide such information to the Human Rights Commission established in Annex 6 to the General Framework Agreement, the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, or to other appropriate organizations.

2. The Parties shall cooperate with investigations of law enforcement forces and officials by the organizations described in paragraph 1.

Article VII: Application

This Agreement applies throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina to law enforcement agencies and personnel of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Entities, and any agency, subdivision, or instrumentality thereof. Law enforcement agencies are those with a mandate including law enforcement, criminal investigations, public and state security, or detention or judicial activities.

Article VIII: Entry into Force

This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature.

For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina