* Report on anti-piracy operations (EUNAVFOR Atalanta, CTF, NATO, Russia, India)

(BRUSSELS2 / Exclusive) This balance sheet, directly carried out arrests made by European and American warships (CTF 465 = EUNAVFOR Atalanta, CTF 150 then CTF-151, CTF 508 NATO “Ocean Shield”), Russians and Indians in the Indian Ocean wants to be as precise as possible . It is carried out, by compiling my notes and various articles already published since April 2008, and according to the database set up. It has, for the moment, no equivalent, each avoiding to give compiled figures.

I added (May 2009) a balance sheet by type of operation as well as a “judicial efficiency” score (i.e. the number of suspects brought to justice compared to the number of arrests) . Which seems to me to be one of the most objective elements in a police operation (bringing offenders to justice). To be complete, it would be necessary to take into account the avoidance rate (number of attacks avoided).

I. Summary - Arrests, releases, bringing to justice, killed, injured

Review of anti-piracy forces deployed off Somalia since April 2008

(consolidated update: March 25, 2010 - currently being updated – April 6, 2011)

See below or Download the balance sheet summary

Arrest Lawsuit Rate Pirate losses Rate
Yes No Remis judged released Pursuit dead Wounded Loss
Read note no. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Strength
CTF 150 / 151 156 59 52 5 17 24% 1 0 0,5%
EUNAVFOR 661 33 198 69 20 29% 4 6 0,6%
NATO 233 33 39 17 0 15% 6 3 2,3%
National (France) 54 0 54 42 0 100% 3 0 5,6%
National (non-EU) 279 60 209 34 11 62% 58 28 17,1%
Local (*) 321 35 230 154 7 65% 17 13 4,8%
Private 1
(accident/rivalry) 15
undivided 200
TOTAL 1704 420 782 321 55 37% 105 50 4,9%
Source: Brussels2 (www.bruxelles2.eu)
April 20th
Main sources: Brussels2 database, Eunavfor, NATO, US Navy, Us Department of Justice, UK Royal Navy, French National Navy, Dutch Navy and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, Danish Navy, Spanish Ministry of Defence, Bundeswehr / Navy, Belgian Armed Forces and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belgium, Government of Seychelles, Autonomous Government of Puntland, Government of Somaliland, Government of Yemen, Indian Navy, Ministry of Defense of South Korea, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia, Ministry of Justice of Kenya, news agencies and national dailies, NGO Ecoterra…

Remarks:

  • (1) arrests : by warships, crossing the Gulf of Aden, the Indian Ocean or the Red Sea, some of them in flagrante delicto (during the attack) or on strong suspicions (pursuit, visit on board and discovery of weapons ). These are arrests with interrogation (often on board the warship), procedure, then surrender to the judicial authorities or release. It can be assimilated to a police custody. Some are released on the spot, after destroying the weapons found; most often, for lack of clear evidence allowing a judgment or by a nearby court that can judge them; others handed over to justice (see 3).
  • (2) Not prosecuted : to be added to arrests to get an idea of ​​the number of “arrests” = suspects either apprehended but left in their boat without further procedure; or left on the run when the means to stop them were present. It can be likened to a simple identity check. This figure is very difficult to estimate and therefore most certainly below reality. According to a quick estimate, it would be at least double. According to a report drawn up by CTF 151, at the end of May 2009, the number of freed pirates was over 200 (212 exactly).
  • (3) handed over to justice : handed over to judicial or police authorities, most often in neighboring countries (Yemen, Puntland-Somalia, Kenya, Seychelles). Of this figure, some were repatriated to the flag state (France, Netherlands, USA, Spain, etc.) for trial. Others were released after trial.
  • (4) Judicial efficiency rate = number of suspects brought to justice divided by the number of suspects arrested. NB: Some ships taking part in multinational operations return to their national flag to “deliver” pirates to “non-contracted” countries or carry out attack operations. The statistics for this type of operation are even more uncertain because some data is difficult to obtain (in particular pirates who are simply disarmed).
  • (5) You are : mainly due to the action of the Indian Navy which has to its “credit” 27 killed. Of the overall number, 16 appear to be fishermen or sailors killed by “mistake”. 6 pirates drowned “all alone” after the ransom was delivered for the SiriusStar. 10 others drowned after the liberation of the Moscow University
  • (6) Loss rate = number of suspects killed divided by the number of suspects arrested.
  • (*) The navies bordering the Indian Ocean in its eastern part and the Gulf of Aden (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Yemen, etc.) are counted in this section. For simplicity, the Indian Navy action is credited as a “domestic” action even if it takes place near India.

II. Arrest and Bringing to justice: destination of apprehended pirates


It varies according to the circumstances (area of ​​incident - high seas or territorial sea, flag of the ship attacked, nationality of the warship, flag of the operation) and the atmosphere of the moment (internal and international political context, political will of the country concerned to host pirates, ongoing hostage taking, etc.).

A. Repatriation to the State of the flag, of the shipowner or of the passengers

Relatively unused solution. At the beginning of 2011, eight countries used it: France (3 times), the United States (2 times), the Netherlands (2 times), Spain, Germany, Belgium. Followed by: South Korea, Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates and especially India.

– 6 pirates arrested, in mid-April 2008, after the release of the Ponant and hostages (by delivery of ransom), during a ground operation carried out by the French commandos, the suspects are imprisoned in Paris. The legal consequences are uncertain – the suspects' lawyers contesting the period of detention on board the French frigate as arbitrary (operation: national / France).

– 6 pirates arrested, on the night of September 15 to 16, 2008, by the french commandos after the attack of Square ace, during an operation at sea carried out by French commandos to free the boat and the hostages, the suspects are imprisoned in Paris (operation: national / France).

– 5 pirates arrested by the Danish ship Absalom, the 2 January 2009, after the attack on a Dutch container ship, and transferred to the Dutch courts, the Dutch prosecutor having requested their extradition (operation: CTF-150).

– 3 pirates arrested by the French frigate Floreal, on April 10, 2009, after the attack on the yacht Tanit (operation: national / France).

– 1 pirate arrested after the boarding of the Maersk Alabama by the US Navy on April 8, 2009 (operation: national).

– 2 pirates arrested after the capture of a Spanish tuna boat alakrana, on October 4, 2009 by the Spanish frigate Canary Islands, transferred to Spain on October 12, 2009 on the order of Judge Garzon (operation: EUNAVFOR).

– 10 pirates arrested by the Dutch frigate Tromp, on April 5, 2010, on an action to take over the MV Taipan. Transferred via Djibouti and the Netherlands to Germany on an arrest warrant from the Hamburg court (operation: EUNAVFOR / national flag).

– 5 pirates arrested by theUSS Nicholas, on April 1, 2010, in flagrante delicto, as well as 6 other suspects arrested by theUSS Ashland, on April 4, 2010, were transferred to the United States (operation: national / USA).

– 5 pirates arrested by the forces of South Korea, in January 2011.

– 8 pirates arrested by the forces malaysian, in January 2011.

– nearly 120 pirates were arrested and brought to justice by Indian forces between February and April 2011. Read:

B. Surrender to Puntland, Somaliland or Somali authorities

Solution preferred by the French and American navies – when the agreement with Kenya is not possible.

– 9 Somali pirates arrested by the French Navy on October 23, 2008, following a control visit (operation: national).

– 8 Somali pirates, arrested by the French Aviso Chief Petty OfficerHer, the 1er January 2009, on an attempted attack on the Panamanian freighter S. Venus (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta – national).

– 19 Somali pirates arrested, by the French frigate Jean de Vienne, the 4 January 2009, after two attempted attacks, one on the Croatian freighter Donat, the other on the Panamanian freighter Vulturnus (operation: national).

– 9 pirates handed over to the Somali Coast Guard by the Floreal, on January 29, 2009, after an attempted attack on theAfrican Ruby, merchant vessel under the Maltese flag (operation: EUNAVFOR – national)

– 9 men apprehended by the Dutch frigate From Zeven Province on April 18, 2009 (operation: NATO) were released and immediately re-arrested by the Somaliland Coast Guard.

– 12 pirates arrested by the Puntland coast guard, April 28, 2009 (operation: national – Puntland)

– 2 suspects, presumed free, handed over by the French Aviso “Commander Bouan“, on June 1, 2009 after the attack on MV Maud and the intervention of the Indian Navy on May 28, 2009. After treatment in Djibouti, the 4 wounded were handed over on June 7 (operation: national / India – EUNAVFOR / France).

– 5 suspects, handed over by the BCR Sum, October 12, 2009, after the attack on the flagship of the Alindien (operation: national).

– 12 suspects arrested on 12 November 2009 by the Floreal in the northwest of the Seychelles handed over on November 19, 2009 (operation: EUNAVFOR)

– 24 suspects arrested by the Nivose, handed over on March 13, 2010. They are among the 35 suspects arrested on four occasions by the French frigate: 22 suspects arrested on March 5, 2010, 2 others arrested on March 6 and 11 suspects arrested on March 7, 2010 (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta) .

- 6 pirates recovered in flagrante delicto by the protection teams on board the French tuna boat Torre Giulia, March 5, 2010. First brought to the Seychelles, they were released by the Seychelles authorities and handed over to the French authorities who sent them back to Puntland on Saturday March 20 (operation: national / France).

C. Surrender to Kenyan authorities

It is now the solution most commonly chosen by several States to try people arrested in the context of their anti-piracy action: the United States (agreement signed on January 16), the United Kingdom, Canada, as well as as the States participating in the EU operation EUNAVFOR Atalanta which signed an agreement with Kenya on 6 March (read here).
– 8 men, arrested by the HMS Cumberland, on November 11, 2008, after the attack on MV Powerful

(operation: NATO).- 7 men were handed over by the US authorities on March 5, 2009. They were part of a group of 16 pirates apprehended, one after the other, by the American ship USS Vella Gulf (CG 72) after the attack on two merchant ships on MV Polaris, under the flag of the Marshall Islands, on February 11, 2009, and MV Premdivya, under the Indian flag, on February 12 (operation CTF-151). Nine suspects were released, after their arrest, “for lack of evidence” to be brought before a Kenyan court according to American officials.

– 9 pirates apprehended, on March 3, 2009, by the German frigate Rheinland-Pfalz, aided by an American helicopter from the USS Monterey (from CTF-151). The public prosecutor's office in Hamburg has opened an investigation (operation EUNAVFOR). But, the German government moved towards a surrender to the Kenyan authorities. The suspects were thus handed over to the Kenyan police, in Mombasa, on March 10, 2009.

– 11 pirates apprehended after the attack on the MV Safmarine Asia by the French frigate Nivose, April 15, 2009 (Eunavfor operation).

– 11 men arrested by the French frigate Nivose on May 3 in flagrante delicto as they attempted to attack… the militare vessel. And handed over – after some discussion – to the Kenyan authorities in Mombasa on May 8 (operation: EUNAVFOR).

– 13 pirates successively arrested by the Spanish Navy (EUNAVFOR operation) were delivered by the Marques della Ensanada, on May 16, 2009 in Kenya. 7 pirates were apprehended on May 6 after the attempted boarding of pirates on the And the end (Greek ship under the Panamanian flag) and 7 others were arrested on May 7 after an attempt on the Anny Petrakis (Maltese freighter). 1 pirate injured in the operation had to be evacuated to Djibouti. A Spanish judge requested the judgment in Spain. But the government – ​​and the Spanish prosecutor – not very keen on this self-referral opposed it.

– 7 pirates arrested, Tuesday, May 26, 2009, by the Swedish corvette after the attack on a Greek ship MV Antonis delivered on June 8, 2009, by air transfer Djibouti – Mombasa (operation: EUNAVFOR).

– 17 suspects apprehended on a mother ship, on May 13, 2009, by two ships of CTF 151 (the Korean Munmu the Great and the American USS Gettysburg) after the attack on an Egyptian ship, the MV Amira, handed over on 9 June 2009 to the Kenyan authorities.

– 9 pirates apprehended by the ITS Mistral, May 22, 2009, (Atalanta force) after the attack on Greek Maria K and American Maersk Virginia ships, were handed over to Kenya on June 25 (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta).

– 7 suspects apprehended by the German frigate Karlsruhe, October 27, 2009, after the attack on the Breton tuna Cap Saint-Vincent (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta).

– 11 men arrested by Kenyan forces on March 21, 2010, off Kiunga.

– 6 suspects arrested on April 9, 2010, by the British frigate Lancaster, after the attack on the MV Nada (operation: national).

– 4 pirates arrested on September 24, 2010, by the Spanish amphibious boat Galicia, after the recapture of a Kenyan fishing boat MT Sherry, captured by pirates (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta)

D. Surrender to Seychelles authorities

Solution used by India as well as by the Europeans who have signed a pirate transfer agreement with the archipelago.

– 9 men apprehended by the Spanish frigate Numancia on 26 April 2009 (operation EUNAVFOR Atalanta), in a combined operation with the French and Indian navies, after the attack on the Italian cruise ship MSC Melody, were handed over directly to the Seychelles authorities (according to the Indian authorities), released and then taken back by the Seychelles coastguards (according to Eunavfor a precautionary “formula” necessary because there is not – yet – a delivery agreement directly with pirates between the EU and the Seychelles).

– 3 men arrested by the Seychelles Coast Guard, May 3, 2009.

– 11 men arrested by the ship Topaz of the Seychelles Coast Guard on October 10, 2009, released October 11 for lack of evidence (operation: Locale / EUNAVFOR Atalanta).

– 10 men arrested by the Seychelles Coast Guard and a NATO ship in a combined operation with the support of EUNAVFOR Atalanta aircraft (operation: NATO / local)

– 11 pirates arrested on the evening of December 6, 2009 off the coast of the Seychelles by a combined action of the French frigate Floreal and the Seychelles Coast Guard (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta / Locale).

– 11 suspects arrested by the Nivose, March 5, 2010 after the attack on Spanish Basque tuna boats, some of which were flying the Seychelles flag (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta)

– 9 pirates, arrested in flagrante delicto, on March 29, 2010, by the Topaz, Seychelles Coastguard vessel, after the captured boat was stormed by pirates.

E. Surrender to Yemen authorities

This is the solution used by some nationalities operating in the Gulf (Denmark, Russia, India).
– 8 “fisher-pirates” in distress, recovered by the Danish ship Absalom, December 4, 2008 (transaction: CTF 150)

– 23 suspected Yemeni and Somali “pirates” arrested by the Indian Navy on December 13, 2008 (operation: national). 11 of them were released immediately as fishermen.

– about ten pirates (figure to be specified) arrested by Russian ship Admiral Vinogradov, January 14, 2009 (operation: national).

– 10 pirates of Somali nationality intercepted by the Russian heavy cruiser Piotr Velicki, February 13, 2009 (operation: national).

– 15 pirates arrested by the Yemeni Coast Guard on April 26, 2009, in two consecutive operations.

– 8 suspects arrested by the Yemen Coast Guard on November 13, 2009, in the Gulf of Aden; 6 others arrested on November 27, 2009.

– 2 pirates arrested by the Yemen coast guard, in March 2010.

– 13 pirates arrested by the Yemen Coast Guard on May 26, 2010.

F. The pirates, apprehended, then freed on the spot:

– 10 Somali pirates apprehended by the Danish ship Absalom, September 10, 2008, and released by order of Copenhagen, the governmental experts being unsure of being able to prosecute and fearing the application of the death penalty if they were delivered to Somalia, the discovered weapons were thrown in water (operation: CTF 150)

– Several alleged “pirates”, spread over three boats, arrested by the Danish ship Absalom, November 3, 2008 (trade: CTF 150)

– Several pirates arrested, by the Danish ship Absalom, after the attack on an Australian cruise ship MV Athena, on December 1, 2008, then released on December 3, on the orders of the coalition HQ in Bahrain, the pirate ship was sunk (operation: CTF 150)

– 6 men apprehended, by the German ship Karlsruhe, on December 25, 2008, released on order of Berlin, the weapons were neutralized (operation: EUNAVFOR Atalanta)

– 7 men apprehended by the Canadian frigate Winnipeg, on 18 April 2009, after an attempted attack on a Front Ardennes tanker and the British military tanker Wave Knight (operation: NATO)

– 29 suspects arrested by the Russian vessel Admiral Panteleev, April 28, 2009, delivered to the representatives of Iran and Pakistan. A confusion relates to the concept of “suspects”, these being able to be “fishermen” (operation: National).

– 3 men apprehended by the French frigate Nivose, April 30, 2009 aboard what appeared to be a mother ship. Life jackets from a boat captured by pirates But no weapons on board. No proof. (operation EUNAVFOR Atalanta)

– 19 men arrested by the Portuguese frigate Corte Real, May 1, 2009, after the attack on the oil tanker Kittion, at the request of the Somali authorities according to NATO (operation: NATO)

– 10 pirates arrested by the British frigate Portland, June 2, 2009, also with the intervention of a Spanish plane from Operation Atalanta, after attacking a ship flying the flag of St Vincent and the Grenadines (operation: CTF 151)

– 8 pirates arrested by the Portuguese frigate Corte Real, on June 22, 2009, after the attack on Maersk Phoenix (operation: NATO)

– 7 pirates apprehended in a combined action between the Dutch and Norwegian ships of the European anti-piracy operation EUNAVFOR Atalanta and the Japanese patrol plane, on August 22, 2009.

– 11 suspected pirates apprehended by the Bremen near the Seychelles, on October 13, 2009 (operation: EUNAVFOR).

– 4 suspected pirates arrested by the Louise Marie, “accompanied” ashore, on November 2, 2009 (operation: EUNAVFOR).

- The Karlsruhe arrests 4 suspects whom he releases on November 4, 2009 (operation: EUNAVFOR).

– 15 pirates arrested by the Greek frigate adrias, November 18, 2009 (Two pirate groups neutralized near the Seychelles)

– 13 suspects arrested by the Dutch frigate Evertsen (EUNAVFOR), on December 2, 2009, then released after 15 days of detention and negotiation with the countries concerned, no one wanted them: neither the Netherlands nor the neighboring States (Evertsen released 13 pirates for lack of host country, a bug?)

– 7 pirates arrested in flagrante delicto by a Spanish frigate SPS Victoria, August 3, 2010

NB: According to the multinational forces, for the semester of 2010 alone, 700 pirates were released.

Etc ...

G. Pirates left at large.

– A mother ship destroyed by the Danish frigate Absalom, March 2, 2010, pirates not prosecuted (operation: NATO)

Etc ...

* Others: Pirates seized but not transferred or whose destination is unknown
– 14 pirates arrested successively on July 24 and 30, 2009 by the Turkish frigate Gediz – which is part of one of NATO's permanent maritime groupings, after the attack on a Turkish merchant ship.

– 8 suspects arrested by theUSS Farragut, February 22, 2010 (trade: CTF 151)

– 5 suspects arrested by the Turkish frigate Gediz, March 5, 2010 (operation: NATO)

– 7 suspects arrested by the Turkish frigate Gemlik, March 7, 2010 (operation: NATO)

III. Legal consequences

Read here


IV. Human losses

– 1 hostage taker was killed by the french commandos during an operation to free the hostages of the Square ace, in mid-September 2008.

– 3 Somali and/or Yemeni pirates, killed during a skirmish with the British of HMS Cumberland November 11, 2008.

– 15 fishermen, killed in what looks like a “blunder” by the Indian Navy, on November 18, 2008.

– 6 drowned pirates, after delivery of the ransom for the release of the SiriusStar, January 9, 2009.

– 1 fisherman killed and 2 injured, during the attack on the Dutch freighter Nedlloyd Barentz (Maersk group) by about fifteen pirates and the intervention of the Admiral Vinogradov, January 13, 2009. They were in the area of ​​Russian fire and were hit by mistake according to the Yemeni authorities. It would be the Somali pirates who injured them, argue the Russians.

– 2 pirates killed during the liberation of the French pleasure boat Tanit April 10, 2009 by the French Navy (operation: national). A hostage will also die without it being possible to determine at first sight the origin of the shooting, undoubtedly from marine commandos of intervention (On the Tanit, read: Chloé Lemaçon's version of the Tanit tragedy implicates the army).

– 3 pirates killed by snipers during the liberation of the captain of the Maersk Alabama by the US Navy on April 8, 2009 (Operation: Domestic).

– 2 pirates were killed and another injured in a clash with the Yemeni coast guard, April 26, 2009
– 1 pirate was injured during an exchange of fire with the Russian helicopterAdmiral Panteleev, April 29, 2009

– 2 pirates killed and 4 others injured after the intervention of an Indian helicopter from theINS Talwar, May 28, 2009 – then supported by a French frigate from Atalanta.

– 1 pirate injured in exchange of fire with the Spanish frigate Canary Islands, October 4, 2009.

– 1 pirate killed by the private guards of the MV Almeezan, March 23, 2010.

– 1 pirate killed during the assault by the warship Marshal Shaposhnikov when releasing the Moscow University, May 6, 2010. Several injured, then treated by the doctor on board. The 10 disarmed and freed pirates aboard a dinghy drowned, according to the Russian Navy (read: The pirates released by the Russians drown).

Also to be noted:

– a sailor from the Egyptian ship stormed by the German Navy (in December) was seriously injured.

– 3 shepherds were reported killed during a land operation carried out in Somalia by French commandos in mid-April 2008, after the capture of the Ponant. This information could never be confirmed. And the French General Staff denies it (Not counted.)

V. Assessment of attacks (source: BMI / Ecoterra)

Very clear increase in 2008 and 2009. The assessment of piracy is regularly carried out by the International Maritime Bureau (IMB).

• In 2008, the number of acts of piracy in the Gulf of Aden region exploded (it was multiplied by three compared to 2007). According to the BMI, 111 ships were attacked off Somalia (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden) and 43 hijacked. To this must be added 17 attacks in the Indian Ocean (Tanzania, Kenya, Seychelles). That is 128 attacks in the area. The NGO Ecoterra has recorded 134 incidents (including failed attempts and attacks) of which 49 succeeded by capturing the vessel. This represents 0,4% of total maritime traffic.

• In 2009, the escalation continues. In the first quarter of 2009, 61 ships were attacked and 9 captured, with 193 crew members. With a notable increase in the danger around the Seychelles and the Indian Ocean: one attack in two or three now occurs in this area. At the end of the year, there were 217 ships attacked and 47 captured, with 867 crew members, according to the International Maritime Bureau.

• In 2010, it continues. In the first quarter, there were 35 attacks and 9 captures of ships in the Somali Basin and the Gulf of Aden. On August 1, over the first seven months of the year, there were: 139 incidents of pirates, 30 ships hijacked, while still being held hostage.

The number of boats between the hands of the pirates evolves according to the catches and the negotiations of ransoms: between 10 and 20 ships and more than 200 crew members in hostage during the year 2009. Largely less, 4 ships, at the end of the summer 2009 (read destocking operation), about 8 (end of October 2009) after the end of the monsoon and the resumption of attacks), 18 boats (beginning of May 2010), 17 boats and 450 sailors (beginning of August 2010).

VI. Financial statement (source: insurers / press agencies)

The cumulative amount of ransoms could reach, in total, according to estimates, between 30 and 150 million $. $80 million in ransom was paid in 2008, according to insurers.

Strength arrests encountered Brought to justice (released) Suspects Not prosecuted identified Pursuit rate Suspects Killedkilled Injured SuspectsInjured Loss rate
-1 prosecuted -3 Judicial (4) -5
(freed) -6
-2
CTF 150 and 151 104 43 43 On 4 10 1 0 1%
(since September 2008)
EUNAVFOR 528 * 187 (-11) 27 On 3 10 1 + 1? 3 + 1?
(from December 2008)
NATO (from November 2008) 140 * 23 28 On 1 10 3 0 2%
National 188 130 (-11) 50 On 7 10 28 + 10 11 20%
(USA, Russia, India, France, China, Egypt…) (from April 2008)
Local (Somalia, Puntland, Yemen, Seychelles, Kenya) 185 132 (-4) 21 On 7 10 8 6 4%
Private 1
Global report 1134 493 (-26) 175 On 4 10 44 + 16 (**) 24 5%

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