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[Memo] Main provisions of the Lisbon Treaty on the CFSP and CSDP, defense and the High Representative (extracts)

(B2) Here are the main provisions of the two treaties — on the European Union and the functioning of the European Union — resulting from the Treaty of Lisbon, applicable to the common foreign and security policy.

NB: the titles in parentheses do not come from the official text but from the editorial staff to facilitate reading. Certain Member States refused — during the development of the Treaty — such identification.

To download the Full text of the Lisbon Treaty

Treaty on European Union (TEU)

Preamble

(…) RESOLVED to implement a common foreign and security policy, including the progressive definition of a common defense policy, which could lead to a common defense, in accordance with the provisions of Article 42, thus strengthening the identity of Europe and its independence in order to promote peace, security and progress in Europe and in the world, (…)

(...)

Paper 15 (European Council)

(…) The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy takes part in the work of the European Council

(…) The President of the European Council ensures, at his level and in his capacity, the external representation of the Union for matters relating to the common foreign and security policy, without prejudice to the powers of the High Representative of the Union for foreign affairs and security policy. (…)

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Paper 17 (European Commission)

(…) 4. The Commission appointed between the date of entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and October 31, 2014, is composed of a national of each Member State, including its President and the high representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is one of its vice-presidents.

5. From 1 November 2014, the Commission is composed of a number of members, including its president and the high representative of the Union for foreign affairs and security policy, corresponding to two thirds of the number of Member States, unless the European Council, acting unanimously, decides to modify this number.

The members of the Commission are chosen from among the nationals of the Member States according to a system of strictly equal rotation between the Member States to reflect the demographic and geographical range of all the Member States. This system is established unanimously by the European Council in accordance with Article 244 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

6. The President of the Commission:

  • (…) c) appoint vice-presidents, other than the high representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, among the members of the Commission.

A member of the Commission submits his resignation if requested to do so by the President. THE high representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy shall submit his resignation, in accordance with the procedure provided for in Article 18(1), if requested to do so by the President.

(…) The president, the high representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the other members of the Commission are subject, as a college, to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. On the basis of this approval, the Commission is appointed by the European Council, acting by qualified majority.

Paper 18 (Appointment of the high representative)

The European Council, acting by qualified majority, with the agreement of the President of the Commission, appoints the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The European Council can end its mandate according to the same procedure

2. The High Representative conducts the Union's common foreign and security policy. He contributes through his proposals to the development of this policy and executes it as an agent of the Council. It does the same for the common security and defense policy.

3. The High Representative chairs the Foreign Affairs Council.

The High Representative is one of the Vice-Presidents of the Commission. It ensures the coherence of the Union's external action. He is responsible, within the Commission, for the latter's responsibilities in the field of external relations and the coordination of other aspects of the Union's external action. In exercising these responsibilities within the Commission, and for these responsibilities only, the High Representative is subject to the procedures which govern the functioning of the Commission, to the extent that this is compatible with paragraphs 2 and 3.

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Paper 22 (right of initiative)

2. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, for the area of ​​the common foreign and security policy, and the Commission, for the other areas of external action, may submit joint proposals to the Council.

CHAPTER 2 – SPECIFIC PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY

SECTION 1 – COMMON PROVISIONS

Paper 23

The action of the Union on the international scene, under this chapter, is based on the principles, pursues the objectives and is carried out in accordance with the general provisions referred to in Chapter 1.

Paper 24 (principles)

(ex Article 11 TEU)

1. The competence of the Union in matters of common foreign and security policy covers all areas of foreign policy as well as all questions relating to the security of the Union, including the progressive definition of a policy of common defense which can lead to a common defense.

The common foreign and security policy is subject to specific rules and procedures. It is defined and implemented by the European Council and the Council, which decide unanimously, except in cases where the treaties provide otherwise. The adoption of legislative acts is excluded. This policy is executed by the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and by the Member States, in accordance with the Treaties. The specific roles of the European Parliament and the Commission in this area are defined by the Treaties. The Court of Justice of the European Union has no jurisdiction with regard to these provisions, with the exception of its competence to review compliance with Article 40 of this Treaty and to review the legality of certain decisions referred to in the second paragraph of Article 275 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

2. Within the framework of the principles and objectives of its external action, the Union conducts, defines and implements a common foreign and security policy based on the development of mutual political solidarity of the Member States, on the identification of questions of general interest and on achieving an ever-increasing degree of convergence of Member States' actions.

3. Member States actively and unreservedly support the Union's foreign and security policy in a spirit of loyalty and mutual solidarity and respect the Union's action in this area.

Member States shall work together to strengthen and develop their mutual political solidarity. They shall refrain from any action contrary to the interests of the Union or likely to harm its effectiveness as a cohesive force in international relations.

The Council and the High Representative ensure compliance with these principles.

Paper 25 (modes of action)

(ex Article 12 TEU)

The Union conducts the common foreign and security policy:

(a) defining general guidelines;

(b) by adopting decisions which define:

(i) actions to be taken by the Union;

(ii) the positions to be taken by the Union;

(iii) the modalities for the implementation of the decisions referred to in points (i) and (ii);

et

(c) strengthening systematic cooperation between Member States for the conduct of their policy.

Article 26 (distribution of roles)

(ex Article 13 TEU)

1. The European Council identifies the strategic interests of the Union, sets objectives and defines the general orientations of the common foreign and security policy, including for matters with defense implications. He adopts the necessary decisions.

If international development requires it, the President of the European Council convenes an extraordinary meeting of the European Council in order to define the strategic lines of Union policy in the face of this development.

2. The Council shall draw up the common foreign and security policy and take the decisions necessary to define and implement this policy, on the basis of the general guidelines and strategic lines defined by the European Council.

The Council and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy ensure the unity, coherence and effectiveness of the Union's action.

3. The common foreign and security policy is implemented by the High Representative and by the Member States, using national and Union resources.

Paper 27 (High Representative)

1. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who chairs the Foreign Affairs Council, contributes through his proposals to the development of the common foreign and security policy and ensures the implementation of the decisions adopted by the European Council and the Council.

2. The High Representative represents the Union on matters relating to the common foreign and security policy. It conducts political dialogue with third parties on behalf of the Union and expresses the Union's position in international organizations and within international conferences.

3. In carrying out his mandate, the High Representative relies on a European External Action Service. This service works in collaboration with the diplomatic services of the Member States and is made up of officials from the relevant services of the General Secretariat of the Council and the Commission as well as staff seconded from national diplomatic services. The organization and functioning of the European External Action Service are determined by a Council decision. The Council acts on a proposal from the High Representative, after consultation of the European Parliament and approval of the Commission.

Paper 28 (operational action)

(ex Article 14 TEU)

1. When an international situation requires operational action by the Union, the Council shall adopt the necessary decisions. They set their objectives, their scope, the means to be made available to the Union, the conditions relating to their implementation and, if necessary, their duration.

If there is a change in circumstances which has a significant impact on a matter which is the subject of such a decision, the Council shall review the principles and objectives of that decision and adopt the necessary decisions.

2. The decisions referred to in paragraph 1 shall commit the Member States in the positions they adopt and in the conduct of their action.

3. Any position taken or any national action envisaged pursuant to a decision referred to in paragraph 1 shall be subject to information by the Member State concerned within a time frame allowing, if necessary, prior consultation within advice. The prior information obligation does not apply to measures which constitute a simple national transposition of Council decisions.

4. In the event of urgent necessity linked to developments in the situation and in the absence of a review of the Council decision referred to in paragraph 1, Member States may urgently take the necessary measures, taking into account of the general objectives of that decision. The Member State which takes such measures shall immediately inform the Council thereof.

5. In the event of major difficulties in implementing a decision referred to in this Article, a Member State shall refer the matter to the Council, which shall deliberate and seek appropriate solutions. These may not run counter to the objectives of the decision referred to in paragraph 1 or harm its effectiveness.

Paper 29 (decisions)

(ex Article 15 TEU)

The Council adopts decisions which define the Union's position on a particular issue of a geographical or thematic nature. Member States shall ensure that their national policies are consistent with Union positions.

Paper 30 (initiatives and urgency)

(ex Article 22 TEU)

1. Each Member State, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, or the High Representative with the support of the Commission may refer to the Council any matter relating to the common foreign and security policy and submit, respectively, initiatives or proposals to the Council.

2. In cases requiring a rapid decision, the High Representative shall summon, either ex officio or at the request of a Member State, within forty-eight hours or, in cases of absolute necessity, within a shorter period. in short, an extraordinary meeting of the Council.

Paper 31 (decision procedures)

(ex Article 23 TEU)

1. Decisions falling under this Chapter shall be taken by the European Council and by the Council acting unanimously, except where this Chapter provides otherwise. The adoption of legislative acts is excluded.

Any member of the Council who abstains from a vote may, in accordance with this paragraph, accompany his abstention with a formal declaration. In this case, he is not required to apply the decision, but he accepts that the decision binds the Union. In a spirit of mutual solidarity, the Member State concerned shall refrain from any action likely to conflict with or obstruct Union action based on this decision and the other Member States shall respect its position. . If the members of the Council who accompany their abstention with such a declaration represent at least a third of the Member States bringing together at least a third of the population of the Union, the decision is not adopted.

2. By way of derogation from paragraph 1, the Council shall act by qualified majority:

– when it adopts a decision which defines a Union action or position on the basis of a decision of the European Council relating to the strategic interests and objectives of the Union, referred to in Article 22(1);

– when it adopts a decision which defines an action or position of the Union on a proposal from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy presented following a specific request made to it by the European Council addressed on his own initiative or at the initiative of the High Representative;

– when it adopts any decision implementing a decision which defines an action or position of the Union,

– when appointing a special representative in accordance with article 33.

If a member of the Council declares that, for reasons of vital national policy and which he states, he intends to oppose the adoption of a decision to be taken by qualified majority, he is not did not vote. The High Representative shall seek, in close consultation with the Member State concerned, a solution acceptable to it. In the absence of a result, the Council, acting by qualified majority, may request that the matter be referred to the European Council with a view to a unanimous decision.

3. The European Council may, unanimously, adopt a decision providing that the Council shall act by qualified majority in cases other than those referred to in paragraph 2.

4. Paragraphs 2 and 3 do not apply to decisions with military or defense implications.

5. For questions of procedure, the Council shall act by a majority of its members.

Paper 32 (common approach)

(ex Article 16 TEU)

Member States shall consult each other within the European Council and the Council on any foreign and security policy issue of general interest, with a view to defining a common approach. Before taking any action on the international scene or making any commitment which could affect the interests of the Union, each Member State consults the others within the European Council or the Council. Member States ensure, through the convergence of their actions, that the Union can assert its interests and values ​​on the international scene. Member States stand in solidarity with each other.

Where the European Council or the Council has defined a common Union approach within the meaning of the first paragraph, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the Foreign Ministers of the Member States shall coordinate their activities within the Council.

The diplomatic missions of the Member States and the Union delegations in third countries and to international organizations shall cooperate with each other and contribute to the formulation and implementation of the common approach.

Paper 33 (special representative)

(ex Article 18 TEU)

The Council may, on a proposal from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, appoint a special representative with a mandate in relation to particular political issues. The special representative exercises his mandate under the authority of the high representative.

Paper 34 (international organizations)

(ex Article 19 TEU)

1. Member States shall coordinate their action within international organizations and at international conferences. They defend the positions of the Union in these forums. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is responsible for organizing this coordination.

Within international organizations and at international conferences in which not all Member States participate, those who do participate defend the Union's positions.

2. In accordance with Article 24(3), Member States represented in international organizations or international conferences in which not all Member States participate shall keep the latter and the High Representative informed of any matter of common interest .

Member States which are also members of the United Nations Security Council will consult together and keep other Member States and the High Representative fully informed. Member States which are members of the Security Council will, in the exercise of their functions, defend the positions and interests of the Union, without prejudice to their responsibilities under the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

When the Union has defined a position on a theme on the agenda of the United Nations Security Council, the Member States sitting there request that the High Representative be invited to present the Union's position.

Paper 35 (diplomatic and consular cooperation)

(ex Article 20 TEU)

The diplomatic and consular missions of the Member States and the delegations of the Union in third countries and international conferences as well as their representations to international organizations, cooperate to ensure respect and implementation of decisions which define positions and Union actions adopted under this Chapter.

They are intensifying their cooperation by exchanging information and carrying out joint assessments.

They contribute to the implementation of the right to protection of citizens of the Union in the territory of third countries, referred to in Article 20(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as well as measures adopted pursuant to Article 23 of the said Treaty.

Paper 36 (European Parliament)

(ex Article 21 TEU)

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy regularly consults the European Parliament on the main aspects and fundamental choices of the common foreign and security policy and the common security and defense policy and the informs of the evolution of these policies. It ensures that the views of the European Parliament are duly taken into account. Special representatives may be involved in informing the European Parliament.

The European Parliament may address questions or make recommendations to the Council and the High Representative. Twice a year it holds a debate on the progress made in the implementation of the common foreign and security policy, including the common security and defense policy.

Paper 37 (international agreements)

(ex Article 24 TEU)

The Union may conclude agreements with one or more States or international organizations in the areas covered by this Chapter.

Paper 38 (PSC)

(ex Article 25 TEU)

Without prejudice to Article 240 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, a political and security committee monitors the international situation in areas covered by the common foreign and security policy and contributes to the definition of policies by issuing opinion to the Council, at the request of the Council, of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, or on its own initiative. It also monitors the implementation of agreed policies, without prejudice to the responsibilities of the High Representative.

Within the framework of this chapter, the political and security committee exercises, under the responsibility of the Council and the high representative, political control and strategic direction of the crisis management operations referred to in Article 43.

The Council may authorize the committee, for the purposes of a crisis management operation and for the duration thereof, as determined by the Council, to take appropriate decisions regarding the political control and strategic direction of the operation .

Paper 39 (protection of personal data)

In accordance with Article 16 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and by way of derogation from paragraph 2 thereof, the Council adopts a decision laying down the rules relating to the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by Member States in the exercise of activities which fall within the scope of this Chapter, and to the free movement of such data. Compliance with these rules is subject to control by independent authorities.

Paper 40 (respective allocations)

(ex Article 47 TEU)

The implementation of the common foreign and security policy does not affect the application of the procedures and the respective scope of the powers of the institutions provided for by the Treaties for the exercise of the competences of the Union referred to in Articles 3 to 6 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

Likewise, the implementation of the policies referred to in those articles does not affect the application of the procedures and the respective scope of the powers of the institutions provided for by the Treaties for the exercise of the Union's competences under this chapter.

Paper 41 (Financing)

(ex Article 28 TEU)

1. Administrative expenses incurred for the institutions by the implementation of this Chapter shall be borne by the Union budget.

2. Operational expenditure entailed by the implementation of this Chapter shall also be borne by the Union budget, with the exception of expenditure relating to operations having military implications or in the field of defense and cases where the Council unanimously decides otherwise.

When an expenditure is not charged to the Union budget, it is charged to the Member States according to the gross national product key, unless the Council, acting unanimously, decides so. otherwise. As regards expenditure relating to operations with military or defense implications, Member States whose representatives in the Council have made a formal declaration under the second subparagraph of Article 31(1) shall not are not required to contribute to their financing.

3. The Council adopts a decision establishing specific procedures to ensure rapid access to appropriations from the Union budget intended for emergency financing of initiatives within the framework of the common foreign and security policy, and in particular for activities preparatory work for a mission referred to in Article 42(1) and Article 43. It shall decide after consulting the European Parliament.

The preparatory activities for the missions referred to in Article 42(1) and Article 43, which are not charged to the Union budget, shall be financed by a launch fund, consisting of contributions from the States members.

The Council adopts by qualified majority, on a proposal from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, decisions establishing:

(a) the arrangements for the establishment and financing of the launch fund, in particular the financial amounts allocated to the fund;

(b) the procedures for managing the start-up fund;

(c) the methods of financial control.

Where the envisaged mission, in accordance with Article 42(1) and Article 43, cannot be charged to the Union budget, the Council authorizes the High Representative to use this fund. The High Representative reports to the Council on the execution of this mandate.

SECTION 2 – PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY

Paper 42 (CSDP principles)

(ex Article 17 TEU)

1. The common security and defense policy is an integral part of the common foreign and security policy. It provides the Union with an operational capacity based on civil and military means. The Union may use it in missions outside the Union in order to ensure the maintenance of peace, the prevention of conflicts and the strengthening of international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. The execution of these tasks relies on the capabilities provided by Member States.

2. The common security and defense policy includes the progressive definition of a common Union defense policy. It will lead to common defence, once the European Council, acting unanimously, has decided so. In this case, it recommends that Member States adopt a decision to this effect in accordance with their respective constitutional rules.

Union policy within the meaning of this section does not affect the specific character of the security and defense policy of certain Member States, it respects the obligations arising from the North Atlantic Treaty for certain Member States which consider that their common defense is carried out within the framework of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and it is compatible with the common security and defense policy adopted within this framework.

3. Member States shall make available to the Union, for the implementation of the common security and defense policy, civil and military capabilities to contribute to the objectives defined by the Council. Member States which between them constitute multinational forces can also make them available to the common security and defense policy.

Member States undertake to gradually improve their military capabilities. The Agency in the field of defense capabilities development, research, acquisitions and armaments (hereinafter referred to as the “European Defense Agency”) identifies operational needs, promotes measures to meet them, contributes to identify and, where appropriate, implement any useful measure to strengthen the industrial and technological base of the defense sector, participate in the definition of a European capabilities and armaments policy, and assist the Council in assessment of the improvement of military capabilities.

4. Decisions relating to the common security and defense policy, including those relating to the launch of a mission referred to in this article, shall be adopted by the Council acting unanimously, on a proposal from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy or on the initiative of a Member State. The High Representative may propose using national means as well as Union instruments, where appropriate jointly with the Commission.

5. The Council may entrust the carrying out of a mission, within the framework of the Union, to a group of Member States in order to preserve the values ​​of the Union and serve its interests. The carrying out of such a mission is governed by article 44.

6. Member States which meet higher criteria of military capabilities and which have made more binding commitments in this area with a view to the most demanding missions, establish permanent structured cooperation within the framework of the Union. This cooperation is governed by Article 46. It does not affect the provisions of Article 43.

7. In the event that a Member State is the object of armed aggression on its territory, the other Member States owe it aid and assistance by all means in their power, in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations. . This does not affect the specific character of the security and defense policy of certain Member States.

Commitments and cooperation in this area remain consistent with the commitments made within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which remains, for the States that are members of it, the foundation of their collective defense and the forum for its Implementation.

PROTOCOL (No. 11)__ON ARTICLE 42 OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

BEARING IN MIND the need to fully apply the provisions of Article 42(2) of the Treaty on European Union;

BEARING IN MIND that Union policy under Article 42 must not affect the specific character of the security and defense policy of certain Member States, that it must respect the obligations arising from the Treaty of the North Atlantic for certain Member States which consider that their common defense is carried out within the framework of NATO and that it must be compatible with the common security and defense policy adopted within this framework;

HAVE AGREED on the following provisions, which are annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union:

The European Union, together with the Western European Union, is developing arrangements to improve cooperation between them.

Paper 43 (Missions)

1. The missions referred to in Article 42(1), in which the Union may use civil and military means, include joint disarmament actions, humanitarian and evacuation missions, advisory missions and assistance in military matters, conflict prevention and peacekeeping missions, combat force missions for crisis management, including peacemaking missions and stabilization operations at the end conflicts. All these missions can contribute to the fight against terrorism, including by supporting third countries to combat terrorism on their territory.

2. The Council shall adopt decisions relating to the tasks referred to in paragraph 1, defining their objective and their scope as well as the general arrangements for their implementation. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, under the authority of the Council and in close and permanent contact with the Political and Security Committee, ensures the coordination of the civil and military aspects of these missions.

Paper 44 (vanguard group)

1. Within the framework of decisions adopted in accordance with Article 43, the Council may entrust the implementation of a mission to a group of Member States which wish to do so and have the necessary capacities for such a mission. These Member States, in association with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, agree among themselves on the management of the mission.

2. Member States participating in the implementation of the mission shall regularly inform the Council of the status of the mission on their own initiative or at the request of another Member State. Participating Member States shall immediately refer the matter to the Council if carrying out the mission leads to major consequences or requires a modification of the objective, scope or modalities of the mission established by the decisions referred to in paragraph 1. In these cases, the Council adopts the necessary decisions.

Paper 45 (European Defense Agency)

1. The European Defense Agency, referred to in Article 42(3), and placed under the authority of the Council, has the following tasks:

(a) contribute to identifying the military capability objectives of the Member States and to assessing compliance with the capability commitments entered into by the Member States;

b) to promote harmonization of operational needs and the adoption of efficient and compatible acquisition methods;

(c) to propose multilateral projects to fulfill the objectives in terms of military capabilities and to ensure the coordination of programs executed by Member States and the management of specific cooperation programs;

(d) supporting defense technology research, coordinating and planning joint research activities and studies of technical solutions to meet future operational needs;

e) to help identify and, where appropriate, implement any useful measure to strengthen the industrial and technological base of the defense sector and to improve the efficiency of military spending.

2. The European Defense Agency is open to all Member States wishing to participate. The Council, acting by qualified majority, adopts a decision defining the status, headquarters and operating procedures of the Agency. This decision takes into account the degree of effective participation in the Agency's activities. Specific groups are formed within the Agency, bringing together Member States which carry out joint projects. The Agency carries out its missions in liaison with the Commission as necessary.

Paper 46 (Permanent Structured Cooperation)

1. Member States wishing to participate in the permanent structured cooperation referred to in Article 42(6), which meet the criteria and subscribe to the commitments in terms of military capabilities set out in the Protocol on permanent structured cooperation, shall notify their intention to the Council and to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

2. Within three months of the notification referred to in paragraph 1, the Council shall adopt a decision establishing permanent structured cooperation and determining the list of participating Member States. The Council acts by qualified majority, after consulting the High Representative.

3. Any Member State which, at a later stage, wishes to participate in permanent structured cooperation shall notify its intention to the Council and to the High Representative.

The Council adopts a decision confirming the participation of the Member State concerned which meets the criteria and subscribes to the commitments referred to in Articles 1 and 2 of the Protocol on Permanent Structured Cooperation. The Council decides by qualified majority, after consulting the High Representative. Only Council members representing participating Member States take part in the vote.

Qualified majority is defined in accordance with Article 238(3)(a) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

4. If a participating Member State no longer fulfills the criteria or can no longer assume the commitments referred to in Articles 1 and 2 of the Protocol on permanent structured cooperation, the Council may adopt a decision suspending the participation of that State.

The Council decides by qualified majority. Only members of the Council representing participating Member States, with the exception of the Member State concerned, take part in the vote.

Qualified majority is defined in accordance with Article 238(3)(a) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

5. If a participating Member State wishes to leave permanent structured cooperation, it shall notify its decision to the Council, which takes note that the participation of the Member State concerned is ending.

6. Decisions and recommendations of the Council in the framework of permanent structured cooperation, other than those provided for in paragraphs 2 to 5, shall be adopted unanimously. For the purposes of this paragraph, unanimity shall consist of the votes of the representatives of the participating Member States alone.

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PROTOCOL (No. 10) ON PERMANENT STRUCTURED COOPERATION ESTABLISHED BY ARTICLE 42 OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

HAVING REGARD to Article 42(6) and Article 46 of the Treaty on European Union,

RECALLING that the Union pursues a common foreign and security policy based on achieving an ever-increasing degree of convergence of the actions of the Member States;

RECALLING that the common security and defense policy is an integral part of the common foreign and security policy; that it ensures the Union an operational capacity based on civil and military means; that the Union may use it for missions referred to in Article 43 of the Treaty on European Union outside the Union in order to ensure the maintenance of peace, the prevention of conflicts and the strengthening of security international in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter; whereas the execution of these tasks relies on the military capabilities provided by the Member States, in accordance with the principle of the “single pool of forces”;

RECALLING that the Union's common security and defense policy does not affect the specific nature of the security and defense policy of certain Member States;

RECALLING that the Union's common security and defense policy respects the obligations arising from the North Atlantic Treaty for Member States which consider that their common defense is carried out within the framework of the Atlantic Treaty Organization North, which remains the basis of the collective defense of its members, and that it is compatible with the common security and defense policy adopted in this framework;

CONVINCED that a more assertive role for the Union in matters of security and defense will contribute to the vitality of a renewed Atlantic alliance, in accordance with the so-called “Berlin plus” arrangements;

DETERMINED that the Union is capable of fully assuming its responsibilities within the international community;

RECOGNIZING that the United Nations may request assistance from the Union to urgently implement missions undertaken under Chapters VI and VII of the Charter of the United Nations;

RECOGNIZING that strengthening the security and defense policy will require Member States to make efforts in the area of ​​capabilities;

AWARE that reaching a new stage in the development of European security and defense policy requires resolute efforts from willing Member States;

RECALLING the importance of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy being fully involved in the work of permanent structured cooperation,

HAVE AGREED on the following provisions, which are annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union:

Article first

Permanent structured cooperation referred to in Article 42(6) of the Treaty on European Union is open to any Member State which undertakes, from the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon:

a) to proceed more intensively with the development of its defense capabilities, through the development of its national contributions and participation, where appropriate, in multinational forces, in the main European equipment programs and in the activity of the Agency in the field of defense capacity development, research, acquisition and armaments (the European Defense Agency), and

(b) to have the capacity to provide, no later than 2010, either on a national basis or as a component of multinational groups of forces, targeted combat units for the envisaged missions, tactically configured as a battle group, with support elements, including transport and logistics, capable of undertaking, within 5 to 30 days, missions referred to in Article 43 of the Treaty on European Union in particular to respond to requests of the United Nations, and sustainable for an initial period of 30 days, extendable to at least 120 days.

Article 2

Member States participating in permanent structured cooperation undertake, in order to achieve the objectives referred to in Article 1:

(a) to cooperate, from the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, with a view to achieving agreed objectives concerning the level of investment expenditure on defense equipment, and to regularly review these objectives in the light of the security environment and the international responsibilities of the Union;

b) to bring together, as far as possible, their defense tools, in particular by harmonizing the identification of military needs, by pooling and, where appropriate, specializing their defense means and capabilities, as well as by encouraging cooperation in the areas of training and logistics;

(c) to take concrete measures to strengthen the availability, interoperability, flexibility and deployment capacity of their forces, in particular by identifying common objectives in terms of force projection, including possibly reviewing their deployment procedures. national decisions;

(d) to cooperate to ensure that they take the necessary measures to fill, including through multinational approaches and without prejudice to their commitments within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the shortcomings identified in the framework of the “Capacity Development Mechanism”;

e) to participate, where appropriate, in the development of joint or European major equipment programs within the framework of the European Defense Agency.

Article 3

The European Defense Agency shall contribute to the regular evaluation of the capabilities contributions of the participating Member States, in particular the contributions provided according to the criteria which will be established, inter alia, on the basis of Article 2, and in fact report at least once a year. The evaluation may serve as a basis for recommendations and decisions of the Council adopted in accordance with Article 46 of the Treaty on European Union.

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU Treaty)

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TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Article 179

(ex Article 163 TEC)

1. The Union aims to strengthen its scientific and technological bases, by creating a space European research system in which researchers, scientific knowledge and technologies circulate freely, and to promote the development of its competitiveness, including that of its industry, as well as to promote research actions deemed necessary under other chapters of the Treaties.

2. For these purposes, it shall encourage enterprises throughout the Union, including small and medium-sized enterprises, research centers and universities in their high-quality research and technological development efforts; it supports their cooperation efforts, particularly aiming to enable researchers to cooperate freely across borders and businesses to fully exploit the potential of the internal market, notably through the opening of national public markets, the definition of common standards and the elimination of legal and fiscal obstacles to this cooperation.

3. All Union actions under the Treaties, including demonstration actions, in the field of research and technological development shall be decided and implemented in accordance with the provisions of this Title.

(...)

Article 181 (coordination of research)

(ex Article 165 TEC)

1. The Union and the Member States shall coordinate their action in the areas of research and technological development, in order to ensure the reciprocal coherence of national policies and Union policy.

2. The Commission may take, in close collaboration with the Member States, any useful initiative to promote the coordination referred to in paragraph 1, in particular initiatives with a view to establishing guidelines and indicators, organizing the exchange of best practices and prepare the necessary elements for periodic monitoring and evaluation. The European Parliament is fully informed.

Article 182 (multiannual framework programme)

(ex Article 166 TEC)

1. A multiannual framework program, which includes all of the Union's actions, is adopted by the European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, after consulting the Economic and Social Committee.

The framework program:

– sets the scientific and technological objectives to be achieved by the actions envisaged in Article 180 and the priorities attached to it;

– indicates the broad outlines of these actions;

– sets the maximum overall amount and the terms of the Union's financial participation in the framework program, as well as the respective shares of each of the actions envisaged.

2. The framework program is adapted or supplemented according to evolving situations.

3. The framework program is implemented through specific programs developed within each of the actions. Each specific program specifies the terms of its implementation, sets its duration and provides the resources deemed necessary. The sum of the amounts estimated as necessary, set by the specific programs, cannot exceed the maximum overall amount set for the framework program and for each action.

4. The Council, acting in accordance with a special legislative procedure, and after consulting the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee, adopts the specific programs.

5. In addition to the actions planned in the multiannual framework programme, the European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure and after consulting the Economic and Social Committee, establish the measures necessary for the implementation of the European area of research.

(...)

Article 196 (civil protection)

1. The Union shall encourage cooperation between Member States in order to strengthen the effectiveness of systems for preventing and protecting against natural or man-made disasters.

Union action aims to:

a) to support and complement the action of Member States at national, regional and local levels relating to risk prevention, the preparation of civil protection actors in the Member States and intervention in the event of natural disasters or of human origin within the Union;

(b) to promote rapid and effective operational cooperation within the Union between national civil protection services;

(c) to promote the coherence of actions undertaken at international level in the field of civil protection.

2. The European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall establish the measures necessary to contribute to the achievement of the objectives referred to in paragraph 1, excluding any harmonization of the laws and regulations of the Member States.

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Article 214 (humanitarian aid)

1. Union actions in the field of humanitarian aid shall be carried out within the framework of the principles and objectives of the Union's external action. These actions aim, on an ad hoc basis, to provide assistance and relief to populations in third countries, victims of natural or man-made disasters, and to protect them, to meet the humanitarian needs resulting from these different situations. The actions of the Union and the Member States complement and reinforce each other.

2. Humanitarian aid actions are carried out in accordance with the principles of international law and the principles of impartiality, neutrality and non-discrimination.

3. The European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall establish measures defining the framework within which the Union's humanitarian aid actions are implemented.

4. The Union may conclude with third countries and competent international organizations any agreements useful for achieving the objectives referred to in paragraph 1 and in Article 21 of the Treaty on European Union.

The first paragraph does not prejudge the competence of the Member States to negotiate in international bodies and to conclude agreements.

5. In order to establish a framework for joint contributions by young Europeans to the Union's humanitarian aid actions, a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps is created. The European Parliament and the Council, acting by means of regulations in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, determine its status and the modalities of its operation.

6. The Commission may take any useful initiative to promote coordination between the actions of the Union and those of the Member States, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and complementarity of Union arrangements and national humanitarian aid arrangements.

7. The Union shall ensure that its humanitarian aid actions are coordinated and consistent with those of international organizations and bodies, in particular those which are part of the United Nations system.

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Article 216 (international agreements)

1. The Union may conclude an agreement with one or more third countries or international organizations where the Treaties so provide or where the conclusion of an agreement is necessary to achieve, within the framework of the Union's policies, the one of the objectives targeted by the treaties, is either provided for in a binding legal act of the Union, or is likely to affect common rules or alter their scope.

2. Agreements concluded by the Union shall bind the institutions of the Union and the Member States.

Article 217 (international agreements)

(ex Article 310 TEC)

The Union may conclude agreements with one or more third countries or international organizations creating an association characterized by reciprocal rights and obligations, joint actions and specific procedures.

Article 218 (negotiation of international agreements)

(ex Article 300 TEC)

1. Without prejudice to the specific provisions of Article 207, agreements between the Union and third countries or international organizations shall be negotiated and concluded in accordance with the procedure below.

2. The Council authorizes the opening of negotiations, adopts the negotiating directives, authorizes the signature and concludes the agreements.

3. The Commission, or the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy where the envisaged agreement relates exclusively or mainly to the common foreign and security policy, shall make recommendations to the Council, which shall adopt a decision authorizing the opening of negotiations and designating, depending on the subject matter of the envisaged agreement, the negotiator or the head of the Union negotiating team.

4. The Council may issue directives to the negotiator and appoint a special committee, the negotiations to be conducted in consultation with this committee.

5. The Council, on a proposal from the negotiator, adopts a decision authorizing the signature of the agreement and, where appropriate, its provisional application before entry into force.

6. The Council, on a proposal from the negotiator, adopts a decision concluding the agreement.

Except where the agreement relates exclusively to the common foreign and security policy, the Council adopts the decision concluding the agreement:

(a) after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament in the following cases:

(i) association agreements;

ii) agreement on the accession of the Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms;

(iii) agreements creating a specific institutional framework by organizing cooperation procedures;

(iv) agreements with significant budgetary implications for the Union;

(v) agreements covering areas to which the ordinary legislative procedure or the special legislative procedure applies where the approval of the European Parliament is required.

The European Parliament and the Council may, in cases of urgency, agree on a deadline for approval;

(b) after consulting the European Parliament, in other cases. The European Parliament issues its opinion within a deadline which the Council may set depending on the urgency. In the absence of an opinion within this period, the Council may decide.

7. By way of derogation from paragraphs 5, 6 and 9, the Council may, when concluding an agreement, empower the negotiator to approve, on behalf of the Union, amendments to the agreement, where it provides that these modifications must be adopted according to a simplified procedure or by a body created by the said agreement. The Council may attach specific conditions to this authorization.

8. Throughout the procedure, the Council shall act by qualified majority.

However, it rules unanimously when the agreement concerns an area for which unanimity is required for the adoption of a Union act as well as for association agreements and the agreements referred to in Article 212 with candidate states. The Council also decides unanimously in favor of the agreement on the accession of the Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; the decision concluding this agreement enters into force after its approval by the Member States, in accordance with their respective constitutional rules.

9. The Council, on a proposal from the Commission or from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, adopts a decision on the suspension of the application of an agreement and establishing the positions to be taken on behalf of the Union in a body created by an agreement, when that body is called upon to adopt acts having legal effects, with the exception of acts supplementing or modifying the institutional framework of the agreement.

10. The European Parliament is immediately and fully informed at all stages of the procedure.

11. A Member State, the European Parliament, the Council or the Commission may obtain the opinion of the Court of Justice on the compatibility of a envisaged agreement with the Treaties. In the event of a negative opinion from the Court, the envisaged agreement cannot enter into force, unless it is modified or the treaties are revised.

(...)

Article 220 (Cooperation with international organizations)

(ex Articles 302 to 304 TEC)

1. The Union shall establish all useful cooperation with the bodies of the United Nations and their specialized agencies, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

The Union also ensures appropriate liaison with other international organizations.

2. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the Commission shall be responsible for the implementation of this Article.

Article 221 (EU delegations)

1. Union delegations in third countries and to international organizations shall represent the Union.

2. Union delegations shall be placed under the authority of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. They act in close cooperation with the diplomatic and consular missions of the Member States.

Article 222 (Solidarity clause)

1. The Union and its Member States shall act jointly in a spirit of solidarity if a Member State is the subject of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster. The Union mobilizes all the instruments at its disposal, including the military means made available to it by the Member States, to:

a) – prevent the terrorist threat on the territory of the Member States;

– protect democratic institutions and the civilian population from a possible terrorist attack;

– provide assistance to a Member State on its territory, at the request of its political authorities, in the event of a terrorist attack;

(b) provide assistance to a Member State on its territory, at the request of its political authorities, in the event of a natural or man-made disaster.

2. If a Member State is the subject of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster, the other Member States shall provide assistance at the request of its political authorities. To this end, Member States coordinate within the Council.

3. The arrangements for implementation by the Union of this solidarity clause shall be defined by a decision adopted by the Council, on a joint proposal from the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Policy. security. Where this decision has defense implications, the Council shall act in accordance with Article 31(1) of the Treaty on European Union. The European Parliament is informed.

Within the framework of this paragraph, and without prejudice to Article 240, the Council shall be assisted by the Political and Security Committee, with the support of the structures developed within the framework of the common security and defense policy, and by the committee referred to in Article 71, which, where appropriate, present joint opinions to it.

4. In order to enable the Union and its Member States to act effectively, the European Council shall regularly assess the threats facing the Union.

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Article 275 (Court of Justice)

The Court of Justice of the European Union does not have jurisdiction over provisions relating to the common foreign and security policy, nor over acts adopted on their basis.

However, the Court has jurisdiction to monitor compliance with Article 40 of the Treaty on European Union and to rule on appeals, brought under the conditions provided for in Article 263, fourth paragraph, of this Treaty concerning the control of the legality of decisions providing for restrictive measures against natural or legal persons adopted by the Council on the basis of Title V, Chapter 2, of the Treaty on European Union.

(...)

Article 333 (Enhanced cooperation)

(ex-articles 27 A to 27 E, 40 to 40 B and 43 to 45 TEU_and ex-articles 11 and 11 A TEC)

1. Where a provision of the Treaties capable of being applied in the context of enhanced cooperation provides that the Council decides unanimously, the Council, acting unanimously in accordance with the procedures provided for in Article 330, may adopt a decision providing that it will rule by qualified majority.

2. Where a provision of the Treaties capable of being applied in the context of enhanced cooperation provides for the Council to adopt acts in accordance with a special legislative procedure, the Council, acting unanimously in accordance with the arrangements laid down in Article 330 may adopt a decision providing that it will rule in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure. The Council decides after consulting the European Parliament.

3. Paragraphs 1 and 2 do not apply to decisions having military or defense implications.

(...)

Article 346 (general security exception)

(ex Article 296 TEC)

1. The provisions of the treaties do not preclude the following rules:

(a) no Member State is required to provide information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to the essential interests of its security,

(b) any Member State may take such measures as it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests and which relate to the production or trade of arms, munitions and war material; these measures must not alter the conditions of competition in the internal market with regard to products not intended for specifically military purposes.

2. The Council, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission, may make amendments to the list, which it established on 15 April 1958, of products to which the provisions of paragraph 1(b) apply .

Article 347 (security exception for the internal market)

(ex Article 297 TEC)

Member States shall consult each other with a view to jointly taking the necessary measures to prevent the functioning of the internal market from being affected by the measures which a Member State may be called upon to take in the event of serious internal disturbances affecting public order, in the event of war or serious international tension constituting a threat of war, or to meet the commitments entered into by it with a view to maintaining international peace and security.

(...)

Article 352 (general jurisdiction clause)

(ex Article 308 TEC)

1. If action by the Union appears necessary, within the framework of the policies defined by the Treaties, to achieve one of the objectives targeted by the Treaties, without the latter having provided for the powers of action required to To this end, the Council, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission and after approval by the European Parliament, adopts the appropriate provisions. When the provisions in question are adopted by the Council in accordance with a special legislative procedure, it also acts unanimously, on a proposal from the Commission and after approval by the European Parliament.

2. The Commission, within the framework of the procedure for monitoring the principle of subsidiarity referred to in Article 5(3) of the Treaty on European Union draws the attention of national parliaments to proposals based on this Article.

3. Measures based on this Article may not involve harmonization of the laws and regulations of the Member States in cases where the Treaties exclude such harmonization.

4. This Article cannot serve as a basis for achieving an objective relating to the common foreign and security policy and any act adopted in accordance with this Article respects the limits set by Article 40, second paragraph of the Treaty on European Union.

PROTOCOL (No. 1)__ON THE ROLE OF NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

(...)

INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COOPERATION

Article 9

The European Parliament and the national parliaments together define the organization and promotion of effective and regular interparliamentary cooperation within the Union.

Article 10

A conference of parliamentary bodies specializing in Union affairs may submit any contribution it considers appropriate to the attention of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission. This conference furthermore promotes the exchange of information and best practices between national parliaments and the European Parliament, including between their specialized committees. It can also organize inter-parliamentary conferences on particular themes, in particular to debate questions of common foreign and security policy, including the common security and defense policy. Conference contributions are not binding on national parliaments and do not prejudge their position.

PROTOCOL (No. 22)__ON THE POSITION OF DENMARK

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

RECALLING the decision of the Heads of State or Government, meeting within the European Council in Edinburgh on 12 December 1992, concerning certain problems raised by Denmark regarding the Treaty on European Union,

HAVING NOTED the position of Denmark on citizenship, economic and monetary union, defense policy and justice and home affairs, as set out in the Edinburgh decision,

AWARE that maintaining within the Treaties a legal regime dating from the Edinburgh Decision will significantly restrict Denmark's participation in important areas of Union cooperation and that it would be in the interest of the Union to ensure the integrity of the acquis in the field of freedom, security and justice;

WISHING therefore to establish a legal framework which will offer Denmark the possibility to participate in the adoption of measures proposed on the basis of Part Three, Title V, of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and welcoming Denmark's intention to avail itself of this possibility when possible in accordance with its constitutional requirements;

TAKING NOTE that Denmark will not object to other Member States continuing to develop their cooperation with regard to measures by which it is not bound,

TAKING INTO ACCOUNT Article 3 of the Protocol on the Schengen acquis integrated into the framework of the European Union,

HAVE AGREED on the following provisions, which are annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union:

(...)

PART II

Article 5

As regards the measures adopted by the Council in the field covered by Article 26(1), Article 42 and Articles 43 to 46 of the Treaty on European Union, Denmark is not participating in the development and implementation of Union decisions and actions which have defense implications. Denmark is therefore not participating in their adoption. Denmark will not object to other Member States continuing to develop their cooperation in this area. Denmark is not obliged to contribute to the financing of operational expenses arising from these measures, nor to make military capabilities available to the Union.

The unanimity of the members of the Council, with the exception of the representative of the Danish government, is required for the acts which the Council is called upon to adopt unanimously.

For the purposes of this article, qualified majority is defined in accordance with Article 238(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

(...)

PART IV

Article 7

Denmark may at any time, in accordance with its constitutional requirements, inform other Member States that it no longer wishes to rely on all or part of this Protocol. In this case, Denmark will fully implement all relevant measures then in force, taken within the framework of the European Union.

Article 8

1. Denmark may at any time, and without prejudice to Article 7, in accordance with its constitutional requirements, notify the other Member States that, with effect from the first day of the month following the notification, Part I consists of the provisions set out in the appendix. In this case, articles 5 to 8 are renumbered accordingly.

2. Six months after the date on which the notification referred to in paragraph 1 takes effect, all the Schengen acquis as well as the measures adopted to develop this acquis which, until then, bound Denmark under obligations under international law , bind the latter under Union law.

(Statements)

(...)

Declaration No. 12 – on Article 18_of the Treaty on European Union

1. The Conference declares that appropriate contacts will be made with the European Parliament during the preparatory work preceding the appointment of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, which will take place on the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, in accordance with Article 18 of the Treaty on European Union and Article 5 of the Protocol on transitional arrangements; the mandate of the High Representative will begin on the same date and will last until the end of the mandate of the Commission then in office.

2. Furthermore, the Conference recalls that the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, whose mandate will begin in November 2009 at the same time and for the same duration as the next Commission, will be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Articles 17 and 18 of the Treaty on European Union.

Declaration No. 13 on the common foreign and security policy

The Conference underlines that the provisions of the Treaty on European Union relating to the common foreign and security policy, including the creation of the office of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the implementation place of an external action service, do not undermine the responsibilities of Member States, as they currently exist, for the development and conduct of their foreign policy nor their national representation in third countries and in the within international organizations.

The Conference also recalls that the provisions governing the common security and defense policy are without prejudice to the specific character of the security and defense policy of the Member States.

It underlines that the European Union and its Member States will remain bound by the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and, in particular, by the primary responsibility of the Security Council and its Member States for the maintenance of peace and security international.

Declaration No. 14 on the common foreign and security policy

In addition to the specific rules and procedures referred to in Article 24(1) of the Treaty on European Union, the Conference emphasizes that the provisions concerning the common foreign and security policy, including with regard to the High Representative of Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the External Action Service, will not affect the existing legal basis, responsibilities or competences of each Member State with regard to the development and conduct of its foreign policy, its national diplomatic service, its relations with third countries and its participation in international organizations, including membership of a Member State in the United Nations Security Council.

The Conference further notes that the provisions concerning the common foreign and security policy do not confer new powers on the Commission to take the initiative for decisions nor increase the role of the European Parliament.

The Conference also recalls that the provisions governing the common security and defense policy are without prejudice to the specific character of the security and defense policy of the Member States.

Declaration No. 15 on Article 27_of the Treaty on European Union

The Conference declares that, upon signature of the Treaty of Lisbon, the Secretary General of the Council, High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the Commission and the Member States should begin the preparatory work relating to the European External Action Service .

Nicolas Gros Verheyde

Chief editor of the B2 site. Graduated in European law from the University of Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and listener to the 65th session of the IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Défense Nationale. Journalist since 1989, founded B2 - Bruxelles2 in 2008. EU/NATO correspondent in Brussels for Sud-Ouest (previously West-France and France-Soir).