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Civil-military cooperation (European Parliament report 2010)

Tuesday November 23, 2010 – Strasbourg – Provisional edition
Civil-military cooperation and development of civil-military capacities
The European Parliament ,

– having regard to Title V of the Treaty on European Union,

– having regard to the European Security Strategy entitled 'A secure Europe in a better world', adopted by the European Council on 12 December 2003, and the report on its implementation entitled 'Providing security in a changing world' adopted by the European Council on 11 and 12 December 2008,

– having regard to the internal security strategy for the European Union adopted by the European Council of 25 and 26 March 2010,

– having regard to the Council conclusions on CSDP adopted on 26 April 2010,

– having regard to the conclusions on ESDP and the declaration entitled 'ESDP ten years – challenges and opportunities', adopted by the Council on 17 November 2009,

– having regard to the declaration on strengthening the European security and defense policy adopted by the European Council on 12 December 2008, and the declaration on capacity building, adopted by the Council on 11 December 2008,

– having regard to the Presidency Conclusions adopted by the European Council in Santa Maria de Feira on 20 June 2000 and in Gothenburg on 16 June 2001, the European Union Program for the Prevention of Violent Conflict, also adopted in Gothenburg on 16 June 2001, and the 2008 civilian overall objective, approved by the European Council on 17 December 2004, and the 2010 civil overall objective, approved by the Council on 19 November 2007,

– having regard to the Presidency Conclusions adopted by the European Council in Helsinki on 11 December 1999 (the 2003 civilian headline target) and the 2010 civilian headline target approved by the Council on 17 May 2004,

– having regard to the Council conclusions of 30 November 2009 on strengthening CBRN security in the European Union and approving the European Union CBRN Action Plan,

– having regard to the Council document of 3 December 2008 on the implementation of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1325, reinforced by UNSC Resolution 1820 in the framework of the ESDP, and the Council document of September 14, 2006 on the integration of human rights into the ESDP,

– having regard to its resolution of 10 February 2010 on the earthquake in Haiti, in which the creation of a European Union civil protection force was called for(1) ,

– having regard to its resolution of 10 March 2010 on the implementation of the European security strategy and the common security and defense policy(2) ,

– having regard to the Council decision of 26 July 2010 establishing the organization and functioning of the European External Action Service (EEAS)(3) ,

– having regard to Article 48 of its regulations,

– having regard to the report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (A7-0308 / 2010),

General considerations

1. recalls that the European Union is committed to defining and carrying out common policies and actions to preserve peace, prevent conflicts, strengthen post-conflict recovery actions and strengthen international security while respecting the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, as well as to consolidate and support democracy, the rule of law, human rights and the principles of international law, as well as to assist populations faced with natural disasters or linked to human activity;

2. emphasizes that internal security and external security are increasingly closely intertwined and that, by developing its crisis management capacities, policies and capacities for conflict prevention and peacebuilding, in line with the aforementioned objectives, the European Union also contributes to preserving the security of its own citizens;

3. Stresses that the Union, mainly through its civil crisis management, offers a distinct contribution to world security, which reflects its essential values ​​and principles;

4. Stresses that real responses to current crises and security threats, including natural disasters, must rely on both civilian and military capabilities, and require them to cooperate more closely; recalls that the establishment of the European Union's comprehensive approach and its combined civil and military crisis management capabilities fall under a system distinct from the CSDP and constitute its main added value; recalls that CSDP is not the only instrument available and that CSDP missions should be used as an integral part of a broader Union strategy;

5. Recalls the need for a European Union White Paper on security and defense, based on systematic and rigorous analyzes on security and defense carried out by States according to common criteria and a timetable, and which define more clearly the objectives and interests of the Union in terms of security and defense, taking into account the means and resources available; insists that this White Paper should also define the areas for which greater civil-military cooperation would be desirable as well as the conditions for its implementation; believes that the Union White Paper should explicitly identify opportunities for pooling resources at Union level, as well as national specializations and harmonization capacities to enable large economies of scale to be achieved;

Strengthen civil-military coordination

6. Stresses that the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS) should contribute to the development of a truly comprehensive European approach to civil and military crisis management, conflict prevention and peacekeeping , and provide the European Union with adequate structures, staff numbers and financial resources enabling it to exercise its global responsibilities in accordance with the United Nations Charter;

7. Fully supports the transfer to the EEAS of the CSDP structures, including the Crisis Management and Planning Directorate, the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capacity, the European Union General Staff, and the Defense Center. situation, under the direct authority and responsibility of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign and Security Policy; recalls the commitment of the Vice-President/High Representative to ensure that all these structures work in close cooperation and synergy with the relevant Commission units dealing with planning and programming of crisis response, conflict prevention and peacebuilding which have been transferred to the EEAS; urges the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative to ensure that these services operate on an equal footing with the CSDP structures; stresses that no formal or informal control by the CSDP structures of the planning and programming measures financed by the Instrument for Stability can be accepted, and insists that the Commission structures which have been transferred must not be dismantled;

8. to promote the design of the Union's overall approach, also encourages close coordination between the European External Action Service (EEAS) and all units remaining attached to the Commission, in particular those which are deal with issues of development, humanitarian aid, civil protection and public health; underlines the need for direct links between the EEAS and the agencies under the CSDP, namely the European Defense Agency, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the European Security and Defense College and the European Union Satellite Center;

9. Draws attention to the role of the Commission's Monitoring and Information Center (CSI) in facilitating the coordination of post-disaster assistance under the Civil Protection Mechanism and underlines the need for liaison close relationship between the center and the European External Action Service and that this is ensured by the Vice-President/High Representative, in her capacity as Vice-President of the Commission; advocates for improved coordination and faster deployment of military assets in the context of disaster relief, particularly airlift capabilities, drawing lessons from the experience of Haiti and respecting the fundamentally civilian nature of disaster relief operations; calls once again for an improvement of the Civil Protection Mechanism allowing for the voluntary pooling of resources from Member States, kept in reserve for immediate deployment in the event of a disaster response operation; suggests that these resources be coordinated and deployed on behalf of the European Union Civil Protection Force to improve the visibility of Union action; at the same time recalls the responsibility of each Member State for civil protection and control measures in the event of a disaster;

10. Also recommends, in the context of operations carried out after disasters – natural or linked to human activity – better coordination between the humanitarian organizations of the Member States and DG ECHO;

11. Calls on the Council to adopt without delay the decisions necessary for the entry into force of the mutual assistance clause set out in Article 42(7) of the EU Treaty as well as the solidarity clause referred to in Article 222 of the FEU Treaty, which should reflect the overall approach of the European Union and be based on civil-military resources;

12. Recalls the successful establishment of the peacebuilding partnership between the Commission and non-governmental organizations and that good cooperation between non-governmental and civil society organizations and the future EEAS is of crucial importance ; calls on the Commission to design the framework for cooperation with NGOs and to promote the use of non-state actors in conflict prevention and conflict management actions carried out by the Union, in particular by integrating them into training activities The union;

The strategic level

13. at the political and strategic level, welcomes the integration of civilian and military elements within the “crisis management and planning” directorate (CMPD), which constitutes real progress; insists, however, on the need to achieve a good balance between civil and military strategic planning capabilities, not only in quantitative terms, but also in hierarchical terms, in order to best exploit all possible synergies; stresses at the same time the need to scrupulously respect the differences between civilian and military roles as well as their distinct objectives, and to ensure that the right mix in terms of human resources is sought for each operation, on a case by case basis. case;

14. Requests in particular the Vice-President/High Representative to address the problem of the lack of specialized personnel in planning civilian missions and building civilian capacity and to ensure that the “crisis management and planning” directorate includes a sufficient number of specialists in all priority areas of civil capacity, including police, justice, civil administration, civil protection and control, as well as in the field of human rights protection;

15. underlines the need, during routine phases, to arrive at a common assessment of the situations which is shared by all the actors of the European Union (EEAS, but also the relevant units of the Commission: DG DEV, DG ECHO, DG SANCO, with the support of their respective crisis assessment capacities) which should appear in all regional or national strategic documents of the Union; notes that the reshaped EU delegations have a key role to play in this process;

16. Calls for a strengthening of the role of heads of European Union delegations and/or special representatives of the Union – when present in a crisis zone – in civil-military coordination actions, to also ensure closer political control of military actions;

At the operational level

17. at the operational planning level, advocates for a significant strengthening of civil planning capacities to live up to the ambitions of the civilian missions of the CSDP, by consolidating the civil planning and conduct capacity (CCPC) in regarding staffing, and through a better distribution of tasks between strategic and operational levels; insists that this division of tasks must be based on a balanced and comprehensive personnel strategy; is of the opinion that, taking into account the responsibilities of the civilian operation commander, this function should be placed at the appropriate level (i.e. at the top level) in the hierarchy of the European External Action Service;

18. Reiterates its call for the creation of a permanent operational staff of the European Union, responsible for the operational planning and conduct of the Union's military operations, to replace the current system of using one of seven staffs available on an ad hoc basis; underlines that such an initiative would ensure a coherent chain of command and significantly increase the Union's capacity to provide rapid and systematic responses to crises (notably by strengthening the Union's institutional memory) and would also reduce costs;

19. Believes that the operational headquarters should be located next to the CCPC in order to maximize the benefits of civil-military coordination, including by sharing certain functions, and to further highlight best practices among European Union planners; even suggests that the operational staff and the CCPC could be integrated into a common Union staff for crisis management, which would be responsible for operational planning and the conduct of all civilian missions of Union, military operations and security sector reform missions;

20. Stresses, however, that the differences between civil and military planning must be taken into account, and that separate chains of command must be maintained, with a civilian operation commander and a military operation commander, whose skills are preserved, and which benefit from the same hierarchical level within the EEAS;

Build up the Union's civil and military capabilities

21. notes the number of commitments made by Member States regarding the establishment of military and civilian crisis management capabilities, from the European Councils of Helsinki and Santa Maria de Feira, to the declaration of December 2008 on capacity building; urges Member States and the Vice-President/High Representative to ensure that these commitments are properly implemented in order to close the critical gap between existing operational capabilities and stated policy objectives;

22. in the context of monitoring the 2010 global objectives, invites the Member States to concentrate on the concrete provision of capabilities and to target areas where possible civil-military synergies exist, in particular those already identified, in order to make real progress in the short term; underlines that capacity development must be guided by specific CSDP mission-specific requirements; welcomes the systematic and comprehensive capacity development process for military capabilities within the European Defense Agency; encourages further reflection on how to establish bridges between the two capacity development processes according to overall civil and military goals;

23. welcomes the action of the rotating presidencies of the Council – the current and the previous one – in launching the process aimed at clarifying the nature and scope of the permanent structured cooperation (PSC) referred to in Article 42(6) FEU Treaty; calls on the Council to state, without further delay, exactly what its view of the PSC is, taking into account the civil-military nature of the European Union's overall approach, and to set out the concrete measures it intends to take to launch the PSC in the context of the current financial crisis and the reduction of national defense budgets in the Member States of the Union;

Staffing for missions

24. in view of the political commitments made, urgently calls on Member States to find a solution to the chronic shortage of civilian personnel for CSDP missions, in particular the EULEX mission in Kosovo and the EUPOL mission in Afghanistan, by intensifying, in particular, work intended to establish national strategies to facilitate the deployment of civilian personnel on missions; urges that, as part of these strategies, relevant national authorities, such as the Ministries of the Interior and the Ministries of Justice, in close cooperation with the Ministries of Defence, design a more structured approach to the task of establishing conditions required for the participation of civilian personnel in CSDP missions, in particular with regard to career prospects and remuneration;

25. in this context, calls on Member States to ensure, in particular, that participation in CSDP missions is considered a significant asset for career development in the police and justice systems of the country of origin. origin, and that the services which temporarily second civilians to carry out these missions are adequately compensated for temporary losses of personnel; considers that the Council should ensure that the rates of daily allowances paid to staff of CSDP missions are adapted to the situation in which the mission in question operates;

26. insists once again on the need to respect United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, which requires the integration of the principle of parity in recruitment and training for all missions, and the consideration of equality between genders for all actions taken; stresses that a sufficient presence of women in civilian or military missions is an essential condition for their success, whether during disaster relief or peacekeeping operations, or during diplomatic mediation activities, because their presence ensures that the needs, rights and interests of women are properly addressed and ensures their participation in the achievement of the actions and objectives of the mission; recalls that it is up to Member States to develop national action plans to ensure compliance with Resolution 1325;


27. Stresses the need to provide appropriate pre-deployment training, which could include the participation of civilian personnel in military exercises, including emergency response exercises, and of military personnel in training and/or or civil exercises; strongly recommends that Member States maintain up-to-date lists of deployable civilians with the required skills, in particular those who have been trained for missions carried out alongside military forces; welcomes the system used by certain Member States which have set up a centralized specialist agency responsible for the recruitment and training of all deployable civilian personnel;

28. Supports the development by the Council of the Goalkeeper software environment (civilian capacity management tool) to facilitate the recruitment and training of personnel responsible for civilian missions;

29. draws attention to the European Training Group and emphasizes that one of the lessons that has been learned from its existence is that investments in training only make sense if they are linked to effective deployments; welcomes that the Commission has prioritized measures to ensure that the future training project for civilians, funded under the Instrument for Stability, targets specialists already identified for deployment in future missions;

30. Insists, in line with the 2008 Council recommendations, on the increased role that the European Security and Defense College (CESD) should play in the area of ​​capacity development and crisis management training effective in view of the establishment of the EEAS; urges the Council to improve the training facilities and staffing of the College, including by providing a permanent headquarters for it, so as to ensure sustainable and effective training at the strategic, operational and tactical levels for civilian and military personnel of the Member States and Union institutions; advocates for the creation of scholarships for young graduates wishing to specialize in areas where needs exist,

31. calls for preparatory action aimed at developing and making available training on mediation and dialogue in the context of the establishment of the EEAS and in continuity with the concept relating to the strengthening of EU capacities in the field mediation and dialogue, adopted by the Council in 2009;

Speed ​​of funding

32. encourages, furthermore, provisions aimed at accelerating the allocation of resources to civilian missions and simplifying decision-making procedures and implementation arrangements; underlines the need for the relevant Commission services to work in close collaboration and on an equal footing with the structures responsible for crisis management within the EEAS in order to enable rapid release of funding for civilian missions; calls, for the purposes of transparency and accountability, to create a budget line for each CSDP mission;

33. Calls on the Council to quickly take appropriate decisions to create the launch fund referred to in Article 41 of the EU Treaty, after consulting the European Parliament; calls on the Vice-President/High Representative to regularly inform Parliament of the state of play, once the start-up fund has been established;

Crisis management instruments

34. welcomes the development of the concept of integrated police units (IPU), namely multi-purpose, rapidly deployable, flexible and interoperable forces, capable of carrying out executive law enforcement tasks, and which, under certain conditions, can also be deployed as part of a military operation and under military command; notes the successful application of this concept in Bosnia and Herzegovina within the framework of EUFOR Althea and in Kosovo within the EULEX mission; underlines the need for these units which are particularly well suited to intervene in non-stabilized situations and in particular during periods of transition when it is necessary to move from a military command to a civilian command; recommends that Member States invest in developing these capabilities;

35. in this context, fully supports the use of the European Gendarmerie Force (EFG) which can be placed under military or civilian command and which offers a rapid deployment capacity for expeditionary police missions, and appears as a particularly useful tool well suited for a range of effective crisis management operations, including post-disaster stabilization missions; calls on all Member States with police forces with military status to join this initiative;

36. Welcomes the progress made in establishing the Expert Group for Civil Response Teams with the aim of having a rapid assessment capacity, but insists that there is a need to expand these lists; underlines the importance of early assessment and information-gathering capabilities to ensure that the Union responds to crises using the most appropriate means available;

37. stresses that it is essential, when a crisis occurs, for the European Union to have the capacity, from the first hours of the crisis, to deploy multidisciplinary teams, made up of all civil, military and civilian experts -military personnel from the European External Action Service and the Commission;

38. invites the Vice-President/High Representative, the Council and the Commission to present a common understanding of the new CSDP missions referred to in Article 43 of the EU Treaty and how they will be carried out in the context of cooperation established civil-military; encourages them, in this context, to accelerate the establishment of a group of experts in the field of security sector reform in order to strengthen the Union's capacity in this area;

39. Calls on the Member States to make optimal use of existing tools and to put in place impact assessment mechanisms before formulating new ambitious objectives;

40. Is convinced that EU battlegroups are an appropriate tool for crisis management operations; reiterates its call on the Council to make them more easily usable and more flexible; also calls for their use for civil-military humanitarian relief operations to be improved, in full compliance with the Oslo Guidelines on the use of military and civil protection assets in disaster relief operations;

41. Urges the Member States to reach an agreement on the extension of the notion of common costs linked to the use of battle groups (the costs must be financed by the Athena mechanism), or on the common financing of the entire cost of crisis management operations carried out by them; considers that such an agreement is necessary to ensure that their use is politically and economically acceptable and to ensure that waiting Member States do not bear a disproportionate burden in a difficult budgetary context; recalls in this regard that in November 2009 the Council invited its General Secretariat to develop ideas on the financing of military operations, in order to discuss them at a high level in 2010, but that no progress has been recorded so far;

42. Calls on Member States to view tactical groups as long-term partnerships and to refrain from disbanding them at the end of their standby period, so that the resources invested in their creation are not lost ; calls for these groups to receive training enabling them to operate alongside civilian deployments; even suggests that they could include civilian units or specialists within their own structure, in particular Integrated Police Units (UPI);

Equip yourself with the means for global crisis management

43. Calls on Member States to go further in developing dual-use capabilities for CSDP civilian missions and military operations, in particular with regard to transport capabilities, and to ensure interoperability in terms of training and practice, and to make better use of existing approaches and, where appropriate, to link together the processes of developing civil and military capabilities;

Research and technology

44. Stresses that EU military and civilian personnel will increasingly be required to act side by side and will, to a large extent, be exposed to the same threats, such as improvised explosive devices, and that they require comparable capabilities in areas such as strategic and tactical transport, logistical support, communications systems, intelligence collection and assessment, medical support, security and force protection, the use of space capabilities and unmanned vehicles;

45. Stresses, therefore, the need to coordinate – and stimulate – investments in dual-use technologies and capabilities, so as to quickly close remaining capability gaps, while avoiding unnecessary duplication, creating synergies and supporting standardization; recalls the essential role that the European Defense Agency should play in this area, in the process of identifying capability needs and also designating capabilities that should be shared, pooled or obtained between members of the Union, in order to provide deployable means to conduct and implement CSDP operations successfully and safely;

46. ​​in this context, supports the establishment of the European framework cooperation for research in security and defense in order to ensure complementarity and synergy between R&T investments in defense and research investments aimed at strengthening civil security carried out by the Commission under the Framework Programme, for example, in areas such as situational awareness, unmanned aerial vehicles, maritime surveillance, countering improvised explosive devices, detection and protection against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive substances (CBRNE), communication, intelligence collection, assessment and transfer of data, as well as cybersecurity;

47. observes, however, that this cooperation must not go beyond what is necessary with a view to civil-military cooperation in the areas of peacekeeping, conflict prevention, strengthening of international security, crisis management and humanitarian aid;

48. welcomes the open debate which took place between EU defense ministers during their informal meeting in Ghent on 23 and 24 September 2010 concerning European research in the field of defense and their assessment of role of the EDA as described in Article 42(3) of the EU Treaty;

Rapid provision of equipment

49. Encourages new measures to ensure that all equipment necessary for rapid response activities to crisis situations – civil or military – is readily available; welcomes the ongoing work on an inventory management system for civilian CSDP missions; invites the Vice-President/High Representative to carry out an in-depth cost-benefit analysis to determine the optimal solutions for each type of equipment required; considers that, depending on the types of equipment, a good mix must be found in terms of Union-wide warehousing, framework contracts and virtual stocks of equipment held by Member States;

50. welcomes, in this context, the establishment of a temporary warehouse in Bosnia and Herzegovina and calls for rapid progress towards the establishment of a permanent warehouse so that the Union is better prepared for civilian crisis management;

Multinational cooperation

51. Encourages further progress in the area of ​​pooling and sharing resources to enable an increase in capacity at the best price, which is more necessary than ever in these times of budgetary austerity; welcomes, in particular, actions to address gaps in strategic airlift capabilities, namely the creation by a number of Member States of a European Air Transport Command as well as the Fleet Initiative European Air Transport Authority (EATC); encourages the Vice-President/High Representative and the Member States to follow the recommendations of the European Defense Agency and to accelerate work to identify other areas where the principles of pooling and sharing could be applied, including in the areas of training or mission support; welcomes, in this regard, the proposal to set up a helicopter-borne multinational within the EATC which could be mobilized for both civil and military missions;

European Union-United Nations

52. Recalls that the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security lies with the United Nations Security Council; underlines, therefore, the need for close cooperation between the Union and the United Nations in the field of civil and military crisis management, and in particular in humanitarian relief operations which are managed by the Office of the United Nations Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA); calls for this cooperation to be strengthened, particularly in theaters where one organization must take over from the other, especially in view of the mixed experience in Kosovo;

53. Urges Member States to ensure that their contributions to UN missions are sufficient and carried out in a coordinated manner; calls on the Vice-President/High Representative to further explore ways in which the Union as a whole could contribute more effectively to UN actions, for example by launching "EU Rapid Response Operations" bridges” or “outside the theater of operations” or by providing a Union contribution within a larger United Nations mission;

54. Calls for improved monitoring of the implementation through UN bodies of EU aid, in line with the Special Report of the European Court of Auditors No 15/2009;

European Union-NATO

55. Stresses that, as 21 of NATO's 28 members are members of the European Union, close cooperation between the Union and NATO is of crucial importance to avoid actions where military capabilities are in duplication, when the two organizations intervene in the same theater of operation, without prejudice to the principle of autonomy in decision-making and respecting the neutrality status of certain Member States of the Union; reaffirms the urgent need to resolve the underlying political problems hampering EU-NATO cooperation and calls for a full and more effective implementation of the "Berlin Plus" arrangements, in order to enable both organizations to intervene effectively in crises current and future;

56. Stresses the need to grant the same level of transparency and engagement to non-EU NATO countries, and to non-NATO EU countries in joint activities, such as highlighted this in the third chapter of the 2020 NATO Report (“Albright Report”);

57. Calls on non-NATO Member States to ensure that NATO's new strategic concept does not lead to unnecessary duplication in the area of ​​civilian capabilities, which would put additional pressure on already scarce resources; believes that NATO should be able to rely more on the civilian capabilities of other international organizations such as the European Union and the United Nations;

58. Reaffirms its support for closer EU-NATO cooperation on capability development and compliance, where possible, with NATO standards; encourages further progress in joint action to address the shortage of transport helicopters; welcomes initiatives to coordinate Union and NATO activities in the areas of combating CBRN disasters and improvised explosive devices and the provision of medical support, which are issues relevant both for missions civilian and military;

European Union – OSCE – African Union

59. Stresses the need for closer cooperation between the European Union and the OSCE and between the European Union and the African Union in their particular operational areas, by improving early warning systems and ensuring an exchange good practices and skills in crisis management;

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60. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Vice-President/High Representative, the Council, the Commission, the parliaments of the Member States, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, the Secretary General of the United Nations and the Secretary General of NATO.

(1) Texts adopted from this date, P7_TA (2010) 0015.
(2) Texts adopted from this date, P7_TA (2010) 0061.
(3) OJ L 201 of 3.8.2010, p. 30.

Nicolas Gros Verheyde

Chief editor of the B2 site. Graduated in European law from the University of Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and listener to the 65th session of the IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Défense Nationale. Journalist since 1989, founded B2 - Bruxelles2 in 2008. EU/NATO correspondent in Brussels for Sud-Ouest (previously West-France and France-Soir).