News BlogMilitary cooperation (projects)

Franco-British declaration on defense and security cooperation (November 2, 2010

(french version, see below)

Declaration on defense and security cooperation

|

London – Tuesday November 2, 2010

1. The United Kingdom and France are natural partners in security and defense. As permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, NATO Allies, members of the European Union and nuclear-weapon States, we share many interests and responsibilities. We are proud of our exceptional and experienced armed forces and our successful defense industries.

2. We are determined to play a leading role in security and defense. Security and prosperity are inseparable. This is why, between us, we invest half of the defense budgets of European countries and two-thirds of research and technology spending. We are among the most active contributors to operations in Afghanistan and other crisis zones. Likewise, we are among the few countries with the capacity and willingness to take on the most demanding military missions. Today, we have reached a level of mutual trust unprecedented in our history.

3. We must face together new challenges such as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles, terrorism, cyberattacks and those that weigh on maritime and space security. We must be prepared to prevent, deter, thwart and combat these threats. More than ever, we need robust defense capabilities that can be deployed quickly and can act together and with a large number of allies.

4. Furthermore, our vital interests can also be threatened at any time. We do not envisage any situation where the vital interests of one of our two Nations could be threatened without those of the other being threatened as well.

5. Today we decided to further strengthen our cooperation. We want to put our forces in a position to act together, optimize our capabilities and make our defense investment more profitable. We plan to increase the areas and ambitions of our joint defense equipment programs and stimulate close industrial cooperation.

6. This cooperation will benefit all of our allies and contribute to the security of the Atlantic Alliance, the European Union and our friends around the world.

Defense

7. We have decided:

a) to sign a Defense and Security Cooperation Treaty in order to develop cooperation between our armed forces, the sharing and pooling of materials and equipment, including through mutual interdependence, the construction of common installations , mutual access to our defense markets and industrial and technological cooperation;

b) to cooperate in technologies related to the management of nuclear arsenals, in order to guarantee our respective independent nuclear deterrent capabilities. We will do this in full compliance with our international obligations. We will engage in unprecedented cooperation in a joint facility in Valduc (France) where the performance of our nuclear warheads and associated equipment will be modeled, in order to ensure their long-term viability, security and safety. A joint Technology Development Center in Aldermaston (UK) will support this project;

c) to sign a letter of intent creating a new framework for exchanges between our armed forces on operational issues;

d) to ask the High Level Franco-British Working Group to intensify its work on industrial and armaments cooperation; And

e) carry out joint initiatives in the areas detailed below.

Operations and training

8. Joint Joint Expeditionary Force. We will establish a Joint Joint Expeditionary Force suitable for a range of scenarios, including high-intensity operations. This Force will combine the three armies. It will include a land component composed of brigade-level formations, a maritime component and an air component with their associated headquarters, as well as logistics and support functions. This will not be a standing force, but will be available on notice for bilateral, NATO, European Union, United Nations or other operations. We will start with joint air and land exercises in 2011 and develop this concept by the next Franco-British Summit, so that it is fully operational in the years that follow. This Force will promote increased interoperability and coherence in military doctrine, training and equipment requirements.

9. Aircraft carrier. The United Kingdom has decided to install catapults and arresting devices on its future operational aircraft carrier. This will allow British and French aircraft to operate from both countries' aircraft carriers. Starting first with cooperation on a maritime group around the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, the United Kingdom and France will acquire, by the beginning of the 2020s, the capacity to deploy a naval aviation force of The integrated Franco-British attack composed of elements from both countries. This will allow the Royal Navy and the French Navy to work in close coordination for the next 30 years.

Equipment and Abilities

10. Support A400M. We are developing a joint support plan for our future A400M transport aircraft fleets. This will reduce costs, improve aircraft availability and pave the way for enhanced cooperation in maintenance, logistics and training, for operations from home or abroad. The negotiation with the manufacturer has entered its final phase, with a view to concluding a single contract with Airbus Military, at the end of 2011, so that integrated support is in place for the arrival of the first French A400M in 2013.

11. A400M training. We will establish a joint bilateral user group to facilitate cooperation on the development of A400M training systems, operational techniques and procedures, as well as simulator and flight training.

12. Technologies and systems for submarines. We plan to jointly develop equipment and technologies for the next generation of nuclear submarines. To this end, we will launch a joint study and conclude agreements in 2011. This cooperation will enable us to support and streamline our common industrial base and achieve savings by sharing development activities, procurement methods and technical expertise.

13. War against maritime mines. We will harmonize our plans for anti-mine equipment and systems. This could increase efficiency, ensure interoperability and help support the Franco-British industrial base in the submarine sector. To this end, we will set up a joint project team in 2011 to define the specifications of a prototype anti-mine system.

14. Satellite communications. We will assess the potential for cooperation on future military satellite communications. Our goal is to reduce overall costs while preserving national sovereignty. We will complete a joint concept study in 2011 for the next satellites which will enter service between 2018 and 2022.

15. In-flight refueling and passenger air transport. We are currently studying the possibility of using excess capacity that could be made available under the British FSTA (Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft) program to meet France's needs for in-flight refueling and military air transport, in financially acceptable conditions for both countries.

Drones

16. Drones have become essential to our armed forces. We have agreed to work together on the next generation of medium altitude and long endurance surveillance drones. This cooperation will share development, support and training costs, and ensure that our forces are interoperable. We will launch a jointly funded competitive evaluation phase in 2011, with a view to developing new equipment between 2015 and 2020.

17. For the longer term, we will together assess the needs and options for the next generation of combat drones from 2030. Building on the work already underway under the leadership of the Franco-British High Level Working Group , we will develop a common technological and industrial roadmap over the next two years. This could lead to the decision to launch in 2012 a joint technological and operational demonstrator program from 2013 to 2018.
Defense industry

18. We have reached agreement on a ten-year strategic plan for the British and French missile sector. We will work on setting up a single European industrial project manager and achieving savings of up to 30%. This strategy will optimize the delivery of military capabilities, adapt our technologies more effectively, enable increased interdependence and consolidate our industrial base in the missile sector. We plan to launch a series of missile projects in 2011 (development of the FASGW(H)/ANL light naval anti-surface missile, assessment of Scalp/Storm Shadow cruise missile upgrades and a joint defense technology roadmap short-range aerial). Cooperation in this industrial sector will serve as a test for initiatives in other industrial sectors.

Research and technology

19. We will continue to implement significant cooperation in research and technology, each devoting an annual budget of €50 million to joint research and development projects. Our goal is to increase this amount if possible. Our joint work will focus on ten priority areas including critical research for satellite communications, drones, naval systems and missiles. They will also focus on key new industrial areas including sensors, electronic warfare technologies and other equipment, as well as innovative areas such as simulation and a co-funded PhD programme.

Cybersecurity

20. Cyberattacks are a growing challenge to state security and critical national infrastructure, particularly in times of conflict. Our national infrastructures are increasingly dependent on online information technologies and computer networks. France and the United Kingdom will jointly face the growing threats to the security of their information systems. This is why we have agreed a framework governing our cooperation in this crucial area. It will strengthen the resilience of our national and common systems

Fight against terrorism

21. We are determined to fight all forms of terrorism, inside and outside our countries. We remain vigilant in the face of the threats currently weighing on them. We plan to strengthen our excellent cooperation in the following areas: early detection of terrorist activities and terrorist recruitment; sharing information on changes in the assessment of the level of the terrorist threat; prevention of terrorist threats in the nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical and explosive fields, in particular with the Cyclamen program to control traffic passing through the Channel Tunnel; protection of our populations and critical infrastructure; commercial aviation security; support for the development of the capabilities of our non-European partners in their fight against terrorism.
International Security

NATO

22. NATO remains the essential guarantor of Europe's security. We share the same objectives for the next NATO Summit in Lisbon. In particular, we want to see important reform decisions taken to ensure the effectiveness and smooth functioning of NATO. We also want a new Strategic Concept that affirms NATO's continued commitment to ensuring the collective defense of our territories, to responding to threats to the security of Allies regardless of their origin and to new threats against the interests fundamental security concerns of the Allies, and which affirms NATO's desire to work with a large number of partners. In this context, we will seek to implement close cooperation in all areas between NATO and the EU as well as a long-term partnership between NATO and Russia, on the basis of concrete cooperation and reciprocity.

23. As long as nuclear weapons exist, NATO will remain a nuclear alliance. The independent strategic nuclear forces of the United Kingdom and France, which have a deterrent role of their own, contribute to the overall deterrence and, therefore, to the security of the Allies. Our minimum national nuclear deterrents are necessary to ward off any threats to our vital interests. In Lisbon, we will support a decision concerning the anti-missile defense of territories, based on the development of the ALTBMD theater anti-missile system, which is financially realistic, consistent with the level of the threat emanating from the Middle East, and allows a partnership with Russia. Missile defense is a complement and not a substitute for deterrence.

European Union

24. We continue to support the objectives and full implementation of the decisions taken in December 2008 by the European Council, under the French Presidency of the EU. In particular, we encourage all members of the European Union to develop their military, civil and civil-military capabilities in order to be more effective in security and crisis management.

25. European Union operations off the coast of Somalia and in Georgia, Bosnia and Kosovo contribute to the overall security of NATO Allies. We will encourage closer cooperation and complementarity between the EU and NATO.

We hope for further progress by the end of 2011 and in this perspective we will work with the Belgian, Hungarian and Polish Presidencies of the EU.

Fight against proliferation

26. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery is one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. We will work to strengthen the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which is one of the pillars of the international security architecture. We will support ongoing efforts regarding the three pillars of the Treaty: non-proliferation, peaceful use of nuclear energy and disarmament. We call on all countries to adopt strong measures to counter the actions of proliferating countries such as Iran and North Korea.

Iran

27. Iran's nuclear proliferation activities and its continued violations of IAEA and UN Security Council resolutions are extremely worrying. A decision by Iranian leaders to comply with these resolutions and thereby address the concerns of the international community would open up many new opportunities for the Iranian people. We call on Iran to engage in serious dialogue with the Six, to achieve a credible solution in compliance with Security Council resolutions. It would provide a long-term guarantee on the peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear program. Pending agreement on such a solution, we call on all countries to follow the EU's example by applying strict and targeted sanctions.

Afghanistan.

28. We pay tribute to our forces in Afghanistan, as well as their Afghan and ISAF comrades, for their courage and sacrifice. The long-term stability of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the elimination of the terrorist threat are crucial to our security. The efforts of Afghans and the international community are bearing fruit. We will strengthen our contribution to training actions carried out by NATO for Afghan forces. At the Lisbon Summit, we expect NATO to launch an orderly transition process to transfer security responsibilities to Afghan authorities in areas where the situation allows. We also call on the Afghan authorities, in accordance with their commitments, to improve governance and fight drug trafficking. We support the efforts of the Government of Afghanistan to reach out to those who renounce terrorism, sever all relations with Al Qaeda and accept the Afghan constitutional framework.
Pakistan

29. We recognize that Pakistan faces major challenges: devastating floods, violent extremism and militancy, implementing democratic reforms and ensuring economic stability. We are committed to helping Pakistan transform into a more stable, prosperous and democratic country by providing development assistance and encouraging the development of trade and investment. We will establish a long-term partnership with Pakistan, bilaterally and through the EU and the Group of Friends of Democratic Pakistan. We recognize that Pakistan has strengthened its fight against violent extremism on its territory, but we call on Pakistani civil and military authorities to redouble their efforts to combat and eliminate Taliban terrorist networks and sanctuaries.

Conclusion

30. We have asked the High Level Group, which will be established under the new Defense and Security Cooperation Treaty, to oversee work in all these areas and to report to us at our next Summit, to be held will be held in France in 2011.

* * *

(Version française)

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

UK–France Summit 2010 Declaration on Defense and Security Co-operation

1. The UK and France are natural partners in security and defence. As permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, NATO Allies, European Union members, and Nuclear Weapons States, we share many common interests and responsibilities. We are proud of our outstanding and experienced armed forces and our advanced defense industries.

2. We are determined to act as leaders in security and defence. Security and prosperity are indivisible. That is why, between us, we invest half of the defense budget of European nations and two thirds of the research and technology spending. We are among the most active contributors to operations in Afghanistan and in other crises areas around the world. We are equally among the few nations able and ready to fulfill the most demanding military missions. Today, we have reached a level of mutual confidence unprecedented in our history.

3. Together we face new challenges such as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles, terrorism, cyber attacks, maritime and space security. We must be ready to prevent, detect, defend against and counter those threats. More than ever, we need defense capabilities that are robust, can be rapidly deployed and are able to operate together and with a range of allies

4. In addition, a threat to our vital interests could also emerge at any time. We do not see situations arising in which the vital interests of either nation could be threatened without the vital interests of the other also being threatened.

5. Today, we have decided to intensify our co-operation still further. We want to enable our forces to operate together, to maximize our capabilities and to obtain greater value for money from our investment in defence. We plan to increase the range and ambition of our joint defense equipment programs, and to foster closer industrial co-operation.

6. We believe this co-operation will benefit all our Allies and contribute to the security of the Atlantic Alliance, the European Union and our friends overseas.

Defence

7. We have decided:

a) to sign a Defense & Security Co-operation Treaty to develop co-operation between our Armed Forces, the sharing and pooling of materials and equipment including through mutual interdependence, the building of joint facilities, mutual access to each other's defense markets, and industrial and technological cooperation;

b) to collaborate in the technology associated with nuclear stockpile stewardship in support of our respective independent nuclear deterrent capabilities, in full compliance with our international obligations, through unprecedented co-operation at a new joint facility at Valduc in France that will model performance of our nuclear warheads and materials to ensure long-term viability, security and safety – this will be supported by a joint Technology Development Center at Aldermaston in the UK;

c) to sign a Letter of Intent, creating a new framework for exchanges between our Armed Forces on operational matters;

d) to direct the UK-France High Level Working Group to strengthen its work on industrial and armament cooperation; and

e) to pursue joint initiatives in the areas detailed below

Operations and training

8. Combined Joint Expeditionary Force. We will develop a Combined Joint Expeditionary Force suitable for a wide range of scenarios, up to and including high intensity operations. It will involve all three Services: there will be a land component comprised of formations at national brigade level, maritime and air components with their associated Headquarters, and logistics and support functions. It will not involve standing forces but will be available at notice for bilateral, NATO, European Union, United Nations or other operations. We will begin with combined air and land exercises during 2011 and will develop the concept before the next UK-France Summit and progress towards full capability in subsequent years. The Force will stimulate greater interoperability and coherence in military doctrine, training and equipment requirements.

9. Aircraft carriers. The UK has decided to install catapults and arresting gear to its future operational aircraft carrier. This will create opportunities for UK and French aircraft to operate off carriers from both countries. Building primarily on maritime task group co-operation around the French carrier Charles de Gaulle, the UK and France will aim to have, by the early 2020s, the ability to deploy a UK-French integrated carrier strike group incorporating assets owned by both countries. This will ensure that the Royal Navy and the French Navy will work in the closest co-ordination over the next generation.

Equipment and capabilities

10. A400M bracket. We are developing a common support plan for our future fleets of A400M transport aircraft. This will reduce costs, improve spares availability and open the way for further co-operation in maintenance, logistics and training, for both deployed and home-based operations. We are in the final stages of negotiations with industry to agree a single contract with Airbus Military, which is to be signed by the end of 2011 so that integrated support is in place for the arrival of the first French aircraft in 2013.

11. A400M training. We will establish a bilateral Joint User Group to facilitate co-operation on the development of A400M training to inform operating techniques and procedures as well as exploring opportunities for synthetic and live training.

12. Submarine technologies and systems. We plan to jointly develop some of the equipment and technologies for the next generation of nuclear submarines. To that end, we will launch a joint study and agree arrangements in 2011. Co-operation will help to sustain and rationalize our combined industrial base and will also generate savings through the sharing of development activities, procurement methods and technical expertise.

13. Maritime mine countermeasures. We will align plans for elements of mine countermeasures equipment and systems. This could provide efficiencies, ensure interoperability and help sustain the Franco-British industrial base in the underwater sector. We will therefore establish a common project team in 2011 to agree the specifications for a prototype mine countermeasures system.

14. Satellite Communications. We will assess the potential for co-operation on future military satellite communications, with a view to reducing overall costs while preserving national sovereignty. We aim to complete a joint concept study in 2011 for the next satellites to enter into service between 2018 and 2022.

15. Air to air refueling and passenger air transport. We are currently investigating the potential to use spare capacity that may be available in the UK's Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft (FSTA) program to meet the needs of France for air to air refueling and military air transport, provided it is financially acceptable to both nations.

Unmanned air systems

16. Unmanned Air Systems have become essential to our armed forces. We have agreed to work together on the next generation of Medium Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Air Surveillance Systems. Co-operation will enable the potential sharing of development, support and training costs, and ensure that our forces can work together. We will launch a jointly funded, competitive assessment phase in 2011, with a view to new equipment delivery between 2015 and 2020.

17. In the longer term, we will jointly assess requirements and options for the next generation of Unmanned Combat Air Systems from 2030 onwards. Building on work already started under the direction of the UK-France High Level Working Group, we will develop over the next two years a joint technological and industrial roadmap. This could lead to a decision in 2012 to launch a joint Technology and Operational Demonstration program from 2013 to 2018.

Defense industry

18. We have reached an agreement on a 10 year strategic plan for the British and French Complex Weapons sector, where we will work towards a single European prime contractor and the achievement of efficiency savings of up to 30%. The strategy will maximize efficiency in delivering military capability, harness our technologies more effectively, permit increasing interdependence, and consolidate our Complex Weapons industrial base. We plan to launch a series of Complex Weapons projects in 2011 (development of the anti-surface missile FASGW(H)/ANL, assessment of enhancements to the Scalp/Storm Shadow cruise missiles, and a joint technology roadmap for short range air defense technologies ). Co-operation in this industrial sector will serve as a test case for initiatives in other industrial sectors.

Research and technology

19. We will continue with our significant R&T co-operation, devoting an annual budget of €50m each to shared research and development, with the aim of increasing this where possible. Our joint work will focus on a set of 10 priority areas that will include time critical research support to satellite communications, unmanned systems, naval systems and complex weapons. It will also include new areas of critical industrial importance such as sensors, electronic warfare technologies, and materials, as well as novel areas such as simulation and a jointly funded PhD programme.

Cyber ​​security

20. Cyber ​​attacks are an increasing challenge for the security of government and critical national infrastructure, especially at times of conflict. Our national infrastructures increasingly rely on connected information technology and computer networks. France and the UK will stand together in confronting the growing threats we face to our cyber security. We have therefore agreed to a framework which will govern our enhanced co-operation in this crucial area, leading to strengthened individual and common resilience.

Counter-terrorism

21. We are committed to confronting all forms of terrorism, at home and abroad, and remain vigilant in the face of the ongoing threat to our countries. We plan to develop our excellent co-operation in the following areas: the early detection of terrorist activities and terrorist recruitment; the sharing of information on changes in the national threat level; the prevention of terrorism through nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical and explosive devices, including through the Cyclamen program for screening traffic passing through the Channel Tunnel; the protection of our populations and critical infrastructure; the security of commercial aviation; and our support to build the capacity of countries outside Europe for the fight against terrorism.

international security

NATO

22. NATO remains the fundamental guarantor of Europe's security. We share the same objectives for the forthcoming NATO Summit in Lisbon. In particular, we are looking for major decisions on reform to ensure NATO's efficiency and effectiveness. We also want a new Strategic Concept that: makes clear NATO's continuing commitment to collective territorial defense and to addressing threats to Allies' security wherever they stem from; addresses new threats to Allies' fundamental security interests; and underlines NATO's desire to work with a wide range of partners. In this context, we will pursue closer co-operation across the board between NATO and the EU, and a lasting partnership between NATO and Russia based on practical co-operation and reciprocity.

23. As long as nuclear weapons exist, NATO will remain a nuclear alliance. British and French independent strategic nuclear forces, which have a deterrent value of their own, contribute to overall deterrence and therefore to Allies' security. These national minimum nuclear deterrents are necessary to determine threats to our vital interests. We will support a decision in Lisbon on territorial missile defence, based on the expansion of the ALTBMD system, which is financially realistic, consistent with the level of the threat arising from the Middle East, and allows for a partnership with Russia. Missile defense is a complement to deterrence, not a substitute.

European Union

24. We continue to support the objectives and full implementation of decisions taken by the December 2008 European Council, under the French EU Presidency. In particular we encourage all European Union members to develop their military, civilian, and civilian-military capabilities, so that European countries can become more effective at delivering security and responding to crises.

25. European Union operations off the coast of Somalia and in Georgia, Bosnia and Kosovo contribute to the overall security of NATO Allies. We will encourage closer co-operation and complementarity between the EU and NATO. We look forward to further progress by the end of 2011 and will work with the Belgian, Hungarian and Polish EU Presidencies to that end.

counter proliferation

26. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery is among the most serious threats to international peace and security. We will work to strengthen the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, one of the cornerstones of the international security architecture, and will support ongoing efforts across its three pillars: non-proliferation, the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and disarmament. We call on all countries to adopt robust measures to counter proliferators such as Iran and North Korea.

Iran

27. Iran's nuclear proliferation activities and its persistent violation of IAEA and UN Security Council Resolutions are of the utmost concern. A choice by Iran's leaders to respect these Resolutions and to resolve the concerns of the international community would open up a wide range of new opportunities for the Iranian people. We call on Iran to engage in serious dialogue with the Six in order to agree a credible solution, consistent with Security Council Resolutions that would provide a long term guarantee of the peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear programme. Until such a solution is in place, we call on all countries to follow the EU's lead by implementing stringent, targeted sanctions.

Afghanistan.

28. We commend the bravery and sacrifice of our forces in Afghanistan and of their Afghan and ISAF comrades. The long term stability of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the elimination of the terrorist threat are crucial for our security. Afghan and international efforts are bearing fruit. We will enhance our contribution to the NATO-led effort to train Afghan forces. At the NATO Summit in Lisbon, we expect NATO to launch an orderly transition process for the transfer of security responsibilities to the Afghan authorities, in those areas where the conditions allow. We also call on the Afghan authorities, consistent with their commitments, to improve governance and to fight drug trafficking. We support the Afghan government's efforts to extend a hand to insurgents who renounce terror, cut all ties with Al Qaeda and accept the Afghan Constitutional framework.

Pakistan

29. We recognize the major challenges faced by Pakistan: devastating floods, violent extremism and militancy, democratic reform, and economic stability. We are determined to help Pakistan transform itself into a more stable, prosperous and democratic country by providing development assistance and supporting greater trade and investment. We will build a long term partnership with Pakistan, both bilaterally and through the EU and the Friends of Democratic Pakistan group. While we recognize the increased actions taken by Pakistan towards tackling violent extremism within its borders, we call on Pakistani civilian and military authorities to redouble their efforts to fight and defeat terror networks and Taleban sanctuaries.

Summary

30. We have instructed the Senior Level Group, which will be set up under the terms of the new Treaty for Defense and Security Co-operation, to oversee work in all of these areas and to report back to us at our next Summit to be held in France in 2011.

Nicolas Gros Verheyde

Chief editor of the B2 site. Graduated in European law from the University of Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and listener to the 65th session of the IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Défense Nationale. Journalist since 1989, founded B2 - Bruxelles2 in 2008. EU/NATO correspondent in Brussels for Sud-Ouest (previously West-France and France-Soir).