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Kellog-Briand Pact – renunciation of war (August 27, 1928)

General Treaty of Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy

The President of the German Reich, the President of the United States of America, His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the French Republic, His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Territories beyond the seas, Emperor of India, His Majesty the King of Italy, His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, the President of the Republic of Poland, the President of the Czechoslovak Republic, having a deep sense of the solemn duty incumbent on them to develop the well-being of humanity;

Convinced that the time has come for a frank renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy, so that the peaceful and friendly relations which now exist between their peoples may be perpetuated;

Convinced that all changes in their mutual relations should only be sought by peaceful means and be effected in order and peace, and that any signatory Power which henceforth seeks to develop its national interests by recourse to war must be deprived of the benefit of this treaty;

Hoping that, encouraged by their example, all the other nations of the world will join in these humanitarian efforts and, by acceding to this treaty as soon as it comes into force, will enable their peoples to benefit from its beneficent stipulations, thus uniting the civilized nations of the world in a common renunciation of war as an instrument of their national policy;

Have decided to conclude a treaty and for this purpose have appointed as their respective plenipotentiaries, namely:

The President of the German Reich:
Dr. Gustav Stresemann, Minister for Foreign Affairs;

The President of the United States of America:
The Honorable Frank B. Kellogg, Secretary of State;

His Majesty the King of the Belgians:
Mr. Paul Hymans, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of State;

The President of the French Republic:
Mr. Aristide Briand, Minister of Foreign Affairs;

His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Territories Beyond the Seas, Emperor of India:
For Great Britain and Northern Ireland and all parts of the British Empire which are not individually members of the League of Nations:
The Right Honorable Lord Cushendun, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Acting Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;

For the Dominion of Canada:
The Right Honorable William Lyon Mackenzie King, Prime Minister and Minister of External Affairs;

For the Commonwealth of Australia:
The Honorable Alexander John McLachlan, Member of the Federal Executive Council;

For the Dominion of New Zealand:
The Honorable Sir Christopher James Parr, New Zealand High Commissioner to Britain;

For the Union of South Africa:
The Honorable Jacobus Stephanus Smit, High Commissioner of the Union of South Africa to Great Britain;

For the Irish Free State:
Mr. William Thomas Cosgrave, President of the Executive Council;

For India:
The Right Honorable Lord Cushendun, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Acting Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;

His Majesty the King of Italy:
Count Gaetano Manzoni, his ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary in Paris;

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan:
Count Uchida, Privy Councillor;

The President of the Republic of Poland:
MA Zaleski, Minister for Foreign Affairs;

The President of the Czechoslovak Republic:
Mr. Doctor Edvard Beneš, Minister of Foreign Affairs;

Who, having communicated their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following articles:

Article I.
The High Contracting Parties solemnly declare in the name of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the settlement of international disputes, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their mutual relations.

Section II.
The High Contracting Parties recognize that the settlement or solution of all disputes or conflicts, of whatever nature or whatever origin they may be, which may arise between them, should never be sought except by peaceful means.

Article III.
This Treaty shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties designated in the preamble, in accordance with the requirements of their respective constitutions, and shall take effect between them as soon as all the instruments of ratification have been deposited at Washington. The present treaty, when brought into force as provided in the preceding paragraph, shall remain open so long as is necessary for the adhesion of all the other Powers of the world. Each instrument establishing the adhesion of a Power shall be deposited at Washington, and the treaty, immediately after such deposit, shall come into force between the Power thus giving its adhesion and the other contracting Powers.

It shall be the responsibility of the Government of the United States to furnish to each government named in the preamble and to any government which subsequently accedes to this treaty a certified true copy of the said treaty and of each of the instruments of ratification or accession. It shall also be incumbent upon the Government of the United States to notify by telegraph to such Governments each instrument of ratification or accession immediately upon deposit.

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty drawn up in the French and English languages, the two texts having equal force, and have affixed thereto their seals.

Done in Paris, on the twenty-seventh day of August, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-eight.

Gustav stresemann
Frank B. Kellogg
Paul Hymans
Aristide Briand
Cushendun
WL Mackenzie King
AJ McLachlan
CJ Parr
JS Smith
William Thomas Cosgrave
Cushendun
G. Manzoni
Uchida
Auguste Zaleski
Dr Edvard Benes

Nicolas Gros Verheyde

Chief editor of the B2 site. Graduated in European law from the University of Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and listener to the 65th session of the IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Défense Nationale. Journalist since 1989, founded B2 - Bruxelles2 in 2008. EU/NATO correspondent in Brussels for Sud-Ouest (previously West-France and France-Soir).

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