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ESDP missions and operations (completed)

Observation Mission “Eumm” Balkans (December 2000 – December 2007). ESDP mission before the letter, "Eumm" is responsible for ensuring the stabilization of the region, focusing its efforts on three aspects: borders, the return of refugees and ethnic issues. It succeeds the first EC monitoring mission present in the region since July 1991 (first in Croatia). Based in Sarajevo but covered all the States in the area (Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia-Kosovo). With 120 international observers (unarmed soldiers) and 75 local personnel, it was led successively by the Irish diplomat Antóin Mac Unfraidh then the Frenchwoman Maryse Daviet.

Military Operation "Concordia" Fyrom (March – December 2003). First military action of the EU, Concordia takes over from the NATO operation “Allied harmony”, from March 18, 2003, with the aim of guaranteeing the security necessary for the implementation of the agreement 'Ohrid. It brings together 400 soldiers from 26 countries (including 13 European) under the command of German Admiral Feist, as D-Saceur (deputy commander of NATO forces in Europe). The command of the force is ensured first by the French general Maral then by the Portuguese general Dos Santos (under Eurofor).

Military Operation "Artemis" Congo (June – September 2003). Ituri, a province in the east of Congo, burned in 2003. The city of Bunia was besieged. While waiting for a larger United Nations force, and taking over from the 750 blue helmets, the EU is setting up a force of 2200 soldiers, the majority coming from France (1700 men) and Sweden. This is the first operation outside Europe, autonomous, without recourse to NATO assets.

“Eupol Proxima” police mission – Fyrom (December 2003 –December 2005). Taking over from the Concordia military operation, it aims to stabilize the situation, consolidate the rule of law by developing a professional police force to European standards, in a few priority areas (borders, public order, fight against corruption and organized crime). Comprising about 200 police officers, it was led by German policeman Jürgen Scholz. A lesser mission, about 30 people succeeds him, "Eupat", until June 2006.

Mission Rule of Law “Eujust Thémis” – Georgia (July 2004 – July 2005). At the initiative of Lithuania, this mission is intended to support the reform of the Georgian judicial system, to bring the structures inherited from the Soviet system up to Western standards. It was headed by the French magistrate Sylvie Pantz. The action then continued until today with the constitution of a small support team responsible for assisting the authorities on issues of the rule of law and border control, at the office of the Special Representative of the EU in Georgia.

“Eupol” Police Mission Kinshasa Congo (February 2005 – June 2007). Established to support the Congolese police reform process, it notably formed a specialized police unit – the integrated police unit (UPI) – responsible for protecting those involved in the transition and contributed to international assistance efforts for the securing the 2006 elections.

African Union Support Mission, AMIS – Darfur (June 2005 – December 2007). With around fifty people (soldiers, police), this civil and military action aimed to support the African Union forces deployed in Darfur. The EU – like NATO – has also provided assistance in strategic transport. It was placed under the direction of the special envoy to Souda, Torben Brylle. The UN/African Union hybrid mission took over (UNAMID).

“AMM” observation mission – Aceh Indonesia (September 2005 – December 2006). After the Helsinki Agreement between the Indonesian government and the GAM rebel group, which ended a thirty-year-old conflict, the EU deployed an observation mission responsible for ensuring that the disarmament process went smoothly, demobilization and reintegration: With 250 observers, it was led by Dutch diplomat Pieter Feith (currently head of the EU Civil Office in Kosovo).

.• Eufor DR Congo military operation (April – November 2006). Second military operation in the country, after Artemis, it aims to ensure the security of the electoral elections. Bringing together around 500 soldiers, mainly French, German and Spanish, the operation was led by German Major General Karlheinz Viereck, from the headquarters, located in Potsdam (Germany) and by French General Christian Damay, in Kinshasa.


Nicolas Gros Verheyde

Chief editor of the B2 site. Graduated in European law from the University of Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne and listener to the 65th session of the IHEDN (Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Défense Nationale. Journalist since 1989, founded B2 - Bruxelles2 in 2008. EU/NATO correspondent in Brussels for Sud-Ouest (previously West-France and France-Soir).